DSST Business Ethics and Society-Study Guide Entire Guide 1 2 and 3

Kant states in his writings act in such a way that

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Kant states in his writings, “Act in such a way that you always treat humanity... never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end.” This means that we must never consider people as a resource to be used to get what we want. If a law is not universal, you will be treating the other people as a means to your ends. Kohlberg’s stages of moral development adaptation of psychological theory conceived by Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget.Lawrence The theory holds that moral reasoning, the basis for ethical behavior, has six identifiable developmental stages, each more adequate at responding to moral dilemmas than its predecessor. Expanding on Piaget's work, Kohlberg determined that the process of moral development was principally concerned with justice, and that it continued throughout the individual's lifetime. Stages It is extremely rare to regress backward in stages—to lose the use of higher stage abilities. Stages cannot be skipped; each provides a new and necessary perspective, more comprehensive and differentiated than its predecessors but integrated with them. LEVEL 1 (PRE-CONVENTIONAL – Stages 1 & 2) The pre-conventional level of moral reasoning is especially common in children, although adults can also exhibit this level of reasoning. Reasoners at this level judge the morality of an action by its direct consequences. The pre-conventional level is solely concerned with the self in an egocentric manner. A child with preconventional morality has not yet adopted or internalized society's conventions regarding what is right or wrong, but instead focuses largely on external consequences that certain actions may bring. Stage 1 -- Obedience and punishment orientation ( How can I avoid punishment? ) Individuals focus on the direct consequences of their actions on themselves. I.E, "The last time I did that I got spanked so I will not do it again." The worse the punishment for the act is, the more "bad" the act is perceived to be. Stage 2 -- Self-interest orientation ( What's in it for me? ) Right behavior is defined by whatever is in the individual's best interest. Stage two reasoning shows a limited interest in the needs of others, but only to a point where it might further the individual's own interests. As a result, concern for others is not based on loyalty or intrinsic respect, but rather a " you scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours " mentality. The lack of a societal perspective in the pre-conventional level is quite different from the social contract (stage five), as all actions have the purpose of serving the individual's own needs or interests. LEVEL 2 (CONVENTIONAL – Stages 3 & 4) The conventional level of moral reasoning is typical of adolescents and adults. Those who reason in a conventional way judge the morality of actions by comparing them to society's views and expectations. Conventional morality is characterized by an acceptance of society's conventions concerning right and wrong. At this level an individual obeys rules and follows society's norms even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience. Adherence to
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