County, the way 'to achieve a system of determining admission to the public schools on a nonracial basis' . . . is to stop assigning students on a racial basis." Id. at 2768 (quoting Brown v. Bd. of Educ. (Brown II), 349 U.S. 294, 300-01 (1955)). Roberts never mentions the race of the children he says have been "segregated," "classified," "assigned," "balanced," and "discriminated" against. In this way he separates each word from the context that gives them meaning. n15 Segregation in public schools has been exacerbated by "white flight" from the urban housing market. In PICS, Justice Breyer noted in dissent that the school district integration plans were in part aimed to discourage "white flight." PICS, 127 S.Ct. at 2828 ("Nor could the school districts have accomplished their desired aims (e.g., avoiding forced busing, countering white flight, maintaining racial diversity) by other means."). Justice Breyer also cited a report describing the importance of the link between housing and education policy. Gary Orfield, Metropolitan School Desegregation: Impacts on Metropolitan Society, in Pursuit of a Dream Deferred: Linking Housing and Education Poli-cy 121 (John A. Powell et al. eds. 2001). An amicus brief submitted by Housing Scholars and Research & Advocacy Organizations ex-plained that "[w]ithout question, the federal government and individual housing authorities played an active and deliberate role in concen-trating poverty in the racially segregated public housing they created" which has resulted in, among other things, segregated public schools. Brief for Housing Scholars and Research & Advocacy Organizations as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondents at 15, PICS, 127 S.Ct. 2738 (2007) (Nos. 05-908, 05- 915); see also Sheryll Cashin, The Failures of Integration: How Race and Class Are Undermining the American Dream 103 (2004); Raymond A. Mohl, Planned Destruction: The Interstates and Central City Housing, in From Tenements to the Taylor Homes: In Search of an Urban Housing Policy in Twentieth-Century America 226, 226-45 (John F. Bauman et al. eds., 2000) (describing how the Interstate Highway system destroyed low-income housing and helped further "residential segregation agendas"). Unfortunately, the Supreme Court has given short shrift to the importance of this link. See, e.g., Milliken v. Bradley, 418 U.S. 717, 748 (1974) (striking down a city's public school integration program because it involved surrounding white suburbs). n16 See Charles R. Lawrence III, Forbidden Conversations: On Race, Privacy, and Community (A Continuing conversation with John Ely on Racism and Democracy) 114 Yale L.J. 1353, 1395 (2005) (discussing the ways that poor minority children who attend integrated schools benefit by the social and political capital that middle class and white parents bring to those schools); see also Richard D. Kahlenberg, All Together Now: Creating Middle-Class Schools Through Public School Choice 47 (2001).
Page 18 40 Conn. L. Rev. 931, * n17 Racial imagery and iconography has long been associated with racial ideology in the United States. See Janette Lake Dates & William Barlow, Split Image: African Americans in the Mass Media 3 (1990) (discussing the struggle to control images of African Americans in