Biology_2007_Virtual_Lab_Answer_Key-1

Thus sex linked traits appear more often in males

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Thus, sex-linked traits appear more often in males than in females. Lab 13: DNA and Genes 1. Describe the differences between the original and mutated sequences. Student answers will vary. The first original sequence I worked with had only one nucleotide change, cytosine to uracil. In my second original sequence, a uracil was inserted in front of another uracil and it caused a silent mutation and a stop codon. 2. How many amino acids were changed? Student answers will vary. In the first sequence I worked with there were no amino acid changes. It was a silent mutation. In the second sequence, there was also a silent mutation but this was followed by a stop codon. 6 of the 8 amino acids were changed or gone. 3. What do you think will be the impact of this mutation? Why? Student answers will vary. The first sequence I built had a silent mutation so I don’t think it will have much impact. The stop codon in the second sequence I built will probably have a large impact as more than 1/2 of the sequence is gone. 4. Was the sequence a result of point or frameshift mutation? Student answers will vary. The first sequence I built was a point mutation sequence. The second sequence I built was a frameshift mutation. 5. Explain why all mutations are not necessarily harmful. Student answers will vary. Mutation is the foundation of change for evolution. While some mutations can be harmful to the organism, many other mutations are the basis of
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the slow process that allows organisms to successfully reproduce. 6. Does changing the sequence of nucleotides always result in a different amino acid sequence? Explain. Student answers will vary. Not always. Sometimes a nucleotide change in a sequence will result in no change to the amino acid. This is because several different combinations of nucleotides can result in the same amino acid. These changes are called silent mutations. Lab 14: Tracking Grizzlies Analysis The answers are intended only as samples. Answers also depend on how students completed the lab and on the random data generated by the computer. 1. DNAfingerprinting identifies individual bears and also allows for determining the gender of a bear. What information does it not provide that might be useful for deciding on conservation efforts? The technology does not provide information on the animal’s health, age and size, or reproductive abilities. 2. Bear hair may also be collected from trees that the bears rub against. In a study using DNA fingerprinting of hair collected from rub trees, it was found that the population in the area contained more male bears than female bears. Explain this outcome. The proportion of males using rub trees may be higher than females using them. It may or may not indicate that there are more male bears in the population than female bears.
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