Spinal cord massive collection of neurons within the

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Spinal cord – massive collection of neurons within the spine that look like think rope or cord Protected by the hard bone and cartilage of the vertebrae Has two major functions o Transmit neural impulses to the brain o Spinal reflexes, our unconscious actions Brain is another component of the CNS, along with the spinal cord; both are separated by the brain stem. Brain Stem – which is made up of the medulla and the nuclei? Medulla is the lowest structure of the brain stem o Major function is involuntary reflexes o Nuclei – control functions like eye and tongue movements Nuclei are collections of neural cell bodies Limbic System – small structures located in the brain - responsible for emotion Most important structure is the Hypothalamus o A lesion on the hypothalamus can cause overeating or pleasure Motivational and emotional behavior and stress Fear, sex aggression, over eating, and pleasure can be affected by damaged or stimulated Often in response to the threat of attack Reticular Activating System - (reticular formation) o Located in the brain stem, affects arousal, orgasms o Stimulating this area can awake or make it alert Corpus Callosum – bundle of fibers that links the two hemispheres or halves of the brain o Cutting the corpus callosum prevents the two hemispheres from communicating Prefrontal Lobotomy – surgical procedure where major neural connections are severed between the prefrontal lobes and the lower brain center - to affects one’s psychological behavioral Endocrine System Glands– network of interconnected glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream Glands and hormones are controlled by the brain and autonomic nervous system o Hormones are chemical compounds secreted by the endocrine glands Is affected by the CNS, Can affect nervous system activity But is not a system of nerves Pituitary Gland – most important endocrine gland – “master gland” o Located under the brain o Important because of the massive amounts of hormones and variety of hormones it secretes Thyroid Gland o Located in the neck o Produces the hormone called thyroxin
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Thyroxin regulates the body’s functioning – the rate of which oxygen is used and growth Adrenal Glands o Located in the kidneys o Secrete a variety of hormones into the bloodstream o Adrenalin is very useful in times of stress or threat Thyroid glands – main function is to regulate metabolism Also body temperature, reproduction, growth, blood cell production, and more Thalamus – main relay station for incoming sensory signals to cerebral cortex, all of the senses but smell report to the thalamus Hypothalamus – Regulates internal temperature, eating, sleeping drinking, emotions, small brain structure Cerebral Cortex – largest part of the brain Underneath the cerebral cortex are four lobes of the brain o Occipital Lobe – related to vision o Temporal Lobe – hearing o Frontal Lobe – voluntary muscles and intelligence o
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