6. Writing style (what distinguishes this from the other texts): Main Concepts: ● is a testimony about Wittenberg and how he died as told by Kovner ● “the fact that he gave himself up to the Gestapo with the consent of the resistance leadership and of his own free will, that that was one of the highest peaks of the resistance, one of the greatest heroic deeds of the fighting Jewish underground in the Ghetto.” ● In July 1943, German Security Police learned of Wittenberg’s resistance activities, after arresting several leaders of Vilna’s Communist underground organization. German police officials appeared before the ghetto’s Jewish leadership and threatened to destroy the ghetto and its 20,000 inhabitants unless the FPO leader was turned over to them. Fearful of massive German reprisals, the ghetto’s leaders and inhabitants called for Wittenberg’s surrender. The ghetto fighters mobilized for action and even rescued their commander from the police, yet under such tremendous pressure, the FPO was compelled to give up Wittenberg. Abiding by his group’s decision, he turned himself in, but committed suicide while in German hands. 1. Title: Facing Death in the Bialystok Ghetto (in book) 2. Author: Unpublished author; but the document is a conversation between the Bialystok leader, Mordecai, and his subordinates. 3. Date: 1943 4. Purpose: primary source that discusses the consequences of armed resistance 5. Historical Context: During phase 3, ghettos and concentration camps. 6. Writing style (what distinguishes this from the other texts): Main Concepts: ● Group of orphans arguing over whether they should fight and run OR fight/hide in the forest. ● Eventually decided to fight, and of course they died (obviii seriously guys cmon) ● Reasoning behind each option: ○ Go to the woods and fight : keep honor, fight with honor, and at least die with honor. ○ Go to the woods and hide : Hershl brings up how hiding in the woods still doesn’t guarantee life and is just prolonging death.
■ There is no honor in dying of starvation and cold out in the woods. ■ If you don’t put up any resistance to germans it shows the jewish “cowardice” and “impotence”. ■ Death is already certain, so organize collective resistance. ■ Do it for revenge and honor ■ “armed resistance was not an act of self-preservation” ○ Stay and Fight ○ Choiceless Choice- Jews understood that they were already dead. ○ Fight or flight 1. Title: Anna Heilman and Rose Meth Memoir Excerpts (in book) 2. Author: Anna Heilman and Rose Meth Memoir Excerpts 3. Date: 1985 4. Purpose: Personal accounts of female resistance 5. Historical Context: took place in 43/44, so extermination period. 6. Writing style (what distinguishes this from the other texts): Main Concepts: ● acknowledges the women who haven’t necessarily been recognized for their resistance efforts.