It is a reflection of adaptation that is the

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- It is a reflection of adaptation that is the interaction of the person & the environment - Adaptation is defined as the process and outcome whereby thinking and feeling, as individuals and groups, use conscious awareness and choice to create human and environmental integration. NURSING - Nursing is the science and practice that expands adaptive abilities and enhances person and environment transformation - Roy’s goal of nursing is the promotio n of adaptation in each of the 4 modes thus contributing to health, quality of life and dying with dignity. - Nursing is about the increase, enhancement, modification and alteration of the stimulus to achieve adaptation. The Roy Adaptation Model (RAM) THE KEY CONCEPTS: The person is adapting in a stable interaction with the environment, either internal or external. The environment serves as the source of a range of a stimuli that will either threaten or promote the person’s unique wholeness. The person’ s major task is to maintain integrity in face of these stimuli. * INTEGRITY the degree of wholeness achieves by adapting to changes in needs. SYSTEM is a set of parts connected to a function as a whole for some purpose & that does so by virtue of the interdependence of its parts - Roy considers the recipient of care to be an open adaptive system - React & interact with other systems in the environment - Have boundaries that are flexible & open to permit interaction with other systems - Employ a feedback cycle of input, throughout & output o Input defined as stimuli which can come from the environment or from within a person o Throughout makes use of a person’s processes & effectors - Processes refer to the control mechanisms that a person uses as an adaptive system - Effectors refer to the physiologic function, self-concept & role function involves in adaptation o Output is the outcome of the system, when the system is a person, the output refers to the person’s behaviors Categories of Output: Adaptive responses those that promote integrity in terms of the goals of the human system Ineffective responses those that contribute to integrity in terms of the human system Types of Stimuli ( Helson, 1964 ) FOCAL the internal or external stimulus most immediately confronting the person, it attracts the most attention.
CONTEXTUAL all other stimuli present in the situation that strengthens/contribute the effect of the focal stimulus. RESIDUAL those stimuli that can affect the focal stimulus but the effects are unclear. - The three types of stimuli act together and influence the adaptation level which is defined as the ability to respond positively in a situation. Coping Mechanism and Control Processes COPING MECHANISM - are the processes that a person uses for self- control - are innate or acquired ways of interacting with the changing environment - innate coping mechanisms are genetically determined or common to the species & are genetically viewed as automatic process - acquired coping mechanisms are developed through strategies such as learning Categories of Coping Mechanism o

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