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territorial integrity. The National Pact was signed, stating that Christians would no keep Lebanon attached to France or try to re establish Mount Lebanon under their full control, and Muslims would not try to unite Lebanon with Syria or any other Arabstate. Lebanon was flourishing under this system, but most of the power and capital
was held by the few elite families, while the government and army in the country were too weak to protect it. The Palestinian refugees who were not accepted by the Christian elite, would try to destabilize the system, as well as education, urbanization and the raising awareness of the gap between rich and poor. Iraq, was the most populated Arab state. With great water and oil resources it could have become one of the strongest Arab countries. After the Palestine War of 1948, Iraq suffered less than other Israel’s neighbors. Much of its growing capital from oil production was invested in river irrigation and other projects that guaranteed future wealth. Changes were happening with a worrying rate, different minority problems riled, almost all Jews were allowed to emigrate from Iraq minus their property, the gap between the shaykhs and peasants grew, pro-Western monarchy lost its prevalent support. Presence of British military was politically covered when Iraq combined with Turkey, Iran, Britain and Pakistan to form an alliance against communism. Revolution of 1952 in Egypt can be views as a result of Egypt’s defeat by Israel because from 1948, country’s drives were activated toward fighting against Israel and trying to win the leadership of the Arab world. Egypt recognized Sudanese independence in 1956. Egyptians believed that only a united and strong Arab world will be able to resist the domination of the Western world. Pan – Arabism arose in Egypt after the overthrow of general Nagib. Nasir emerged as a leader of Arab nationalism in 1954 and was the Egypt’s president for the next 16 years. He openly resisted the West and rejected any strings to the West. 5.Explain the growth and spread of religious revivalism in Muslim countries since the late 1960s. How does the ideological framework of Islamic revivalism embraced by radical activists compare to that held by the moderate majority of Muslims?
and national self-identity, more indigenously to find strength inside the communityand not outside of it. The framework of Islamic beliefs consists of the following:Islam is the total and complete way of life where religion is essential to law, society and politics. For the society to be renewed, it must return to Islam. Muslim societies fail because they distanced themselves from the straight and only path of Islam and followed a Western, earthly, materialistic path. In order to restore God’s law and initiate a true Islamic order, Western principles must be replaced with Islamic law, which is the only acceptable plan for Muslim world. Westernization of the community is criticized, modernization is accepted in terms of science and technology, but they have to be subordinated to Muslim laws.