Most desktop computers have motherboards with built

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Most desktop computers have motherboards with built-in network adapters. Practically all mobile devices (i.e., smartphones, tablets, laptops, etc.) have a built-in wireless NIC. Network adapters must match the network medium of the network.
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Ethernet network adapters that are connected to a switch will operate in full-duplex mode. This allows the adapter to send and receive at the same time. The speed of an Ethernet network adapter is determined by the NIC, the network medium, and the connectivity device. The speed can only go as fast as the slowest component. For example, if the NIC runs at 1000 Mbps, but the Ethernet cable only runs at 100 Mbps, the speed to the network will be 100 Mbps. Most network adapters support Wake-on-LAN (WOL) functionality, which allows you to power on a computer system over the network through the network adapter. The MAC address is a unique hexadecimal identifier burned into the ROM of every NIC. o The MAC address is a 12-digit (48-bit) hexadecimal number. Each number ranges between 0–9 or A–F. o The numbers in a MAC address can be divided by dashes (00-B0-D0-06-BC-AC), periods (00B0.D006.BCAC), or colons (00:B0:D0:06:BC:AC). o The MAC address is guaranteed unique through design. The first half (first six digits) of the MAC address is assigned to each manufacturer. The manufacturer determines the rest of the address, assigning a unique value which identifies the host address. A manufacturer that uses all the addresses in the original assignment can apply for a new MAC address assignment. Some network cards allow you to change the MAC address through jumpers, switches, or software. However, there is little practical reason for doing so. Devices use the MAC address to send frames to other devices on the same subnet. Before two devices can communicate, they must know the MAC address of the receiving device. They do this by using the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP): o The sending device sends out a broadcast frame: The destination MAC address is all Fs (FFFF:FFFF:FFFF). The sending MAC address is its own MAC address. The destination IP address is the known IP address of the destination host. The sending IP address is its own IP address. o All hosts on the subnet process the broadcast frame and look at the destination IP address of the packet. o If the destination IP address matches its own address, the host responds with a frame that includes its own MAC address as the sending MAC address. o The original sender then reads the MAC address from the frame and associates the IP address with the MAC address, saving it in cache. 2. Once the sender knows the MAC address of the receiver, it sends data in frames addressed to the destination device. Cable Media 0:00-0:36 The network medium is the physical channel through which data communications travel. It's the connecting method between network hosts. Network media can be divided into two categories,bounded and unbounded.
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