These in turn are brought together in a concluding

This preview shows page 162 - 164 out of 306 pages.

These, in turn, are brought together in a concluding section on the lessons to be learned fromthese initiatives for cities in the twenty-first century.European urban changeChanges in the European urban system have been described in depth in a number of studiesand reports. Urbanisation and the Function of Cities in the European Community(EuropeanInstitute of Urban Affairs, 1992) still provides a stimulating understanding of urban change inEurope, as do the European Sustainable Cities Report (CEC, 1996c) and the UrbanCommunication Towards an Urban Agenda in The European Union(CEC, 1997c).It is possible to identify a clear cycle of urban change in the European system during thepost-war period, from urbanisation to suburbanisation, then deurbanisation (also calledcounter-urbanisation) and, most recently, re-urbanisation, with close links between populationshifts and changing economic fortunes. The largest industrial cities of the north and westexperienced outward shifts in population and employment early on, while smaller towns andcities – especially those located in the south and west – grew. The period since the mid-1980shas witnessed a slowing of these population shifts in a period of economic recession and,most recently, a revival of population growth in some of the largest cities, linked in part toprogrammes of public and private investment in historic city centres. In the early 1990s theurban system was more demographically stable than in the period from the 1950s to the late1980s, but cities are still vulnerable to change, especially from migration from eastern andcentral European countries. The Single Market and the enlargement of the European Unionare further forces for urban change.Towards an Urban Agenda in the European Union(CEC, 1997c) sees the main challengesfacing European cities as revolving around the dynamics of urban change in Europe, owing tonet immigration, national economic performance, structural change in the employment marketcoupled with the rapid growth and size of the service sector, the increasing importance ofenvironment and quality of life conditions and the skills base and responsiveness of labour in
146 Urban planning in Europelocational decisions, and the expansion of the EU through the reunification of Germany andthe accession of countries in central and eastern Europe (CEC, 1997c). Globalisation and theshift to the service sector has nevertheless not diminished the importance of space foreconomic development. There is, however, an emerging imbalance in the European urbansystem with the central gateway cities of Antwerp, Bremen, Rotterdam, Hanover, Lyon andVienna, and medium cities located in the core of Europe, profiting more from Europeanintegration than cities on the periphery.

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture