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(ii oceans from the interior of the solid earth as a

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Unformatted text preview: (ii) Oceans: From the interior of the solid earth as a product of the Process of heating up and differentiation, some water bearing elements released their water molecules which accumulate on the surface to form the oceanic water. (iii) Atmosphere: Out-gassing , resulting from differentiation and some gas releasing chemical reactions brought about much gasses that accumulated above the solid earth. 3.4.2 Global distribution of continents and oceans- 38 - About 45% of the earth surface has sea-sea antipodal and 1.4% has land-land antipodal. Northern hemisphere has 60% land and 40% water, while southern hemisphere has 61% water and 39% land. In general, earth’s surface has 29% continent and 71% is covered by ocean. The total world area is approximately 2 6 10 510 km . 3.4.3 Significant Surface Features of Oceans . Elevation h is the height relative to see surface on the continent. Average elevation of continents is 0.88 km. Average depth or ocean floor is 3.8 km. Continental rocks are lighter than oceanic rocks. There is world wide mountain range that crosses the ocean basin 1000 km wide and 65,000 km long across the world. 3.5 Sequence of the Solid Earth’s Surface Ocean Surface (sea level) Continental self Continental slope Ocean water Ocean floor Mid -Ocean ridge h Elevation Continental platform Sea level Top surface h = elevation - 39 - The earth’s surface is basically viewed in three forms: (i) The top surface is the continental platform wrinkled in nature. (ii) Geoids is the sea level, where sea water will flow to if the continent were to be tunnelled. In other word, geoid is the equipotential surface to which direction of gravity field is everywhere perpendicular. The vertical separation between the geoids and a point on the earth’s surface is the elevation. (iv) Ellipsoid is the ideal smooth surface of the earth in its oblate form. It sometimes coincides with geoids, but sometimes not. 3.6 Self-assessment Exercise 2 (1) What percentage of the earth’s surface is not covered by ocean water? (2) Define ellipsoid (3) What other name can you call a geoid? (4) How did the ocean form? - 40 - 4.0 Conclusion The interior of the earth compose of crust, mantle and core where the characteristics of each layer varies based on scientific evidences. Most of the surface structures of the earth are consequences of events that originated from the solid earth. 5.0 Summary In this unit you have learnt: (i) The two models of the solid earth drawn from the chemical composition information and ability of the materials to flow. (ii) That earth crust is not homogeneous based on evidences such as density Variation. (iii) The formations of the continent and as major surface features of the solid Earth....
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(ii Oceans From the interior of the solid earth as a...

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