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I gave him a book i gave a book to him he was given a

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I gave him a book = I gave a book to him = He was given a book (by me). ðặ t by + tân ng m i ñằ ng sau t t c các tân ng khác. N ế u sau by là m t ñạ i t vô nhân x ư ng mang ngh ĩ a ng ườ i ta: by people, by sb thì b h n nó ñ i. Hi n t i th ườ ng ho c Quá kh th ườ ng am is are was were + [verb in past participle] Active : Hurricanes destroy a great deal of property each year. Passive : A great deal of property is destroyed by hurricanes each year. Hi n t i ti ế p di n ho c Quá kh ti ế p di n am is are was were + being + [verb in past participle] Active : The committee is considering several new proposals. Passive : Several new proposals are being considered by the committee. Hi n t i hoàn thành ho c Quá kh hoàn thành has have had + been + [verb in past participle] Active : The company has ordered some new equipment. Passive : Some new equipment has been ordered by the company. Tr ñộ ng t modal + be + [verb in past participle]
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S ư u t m và thi ế t k ế b i Ph m Vi t V ũ - 85 – Tr ườ ng ðạ i H c Kinh T ế ð à N ng Active : The manager should sign these contracts today. Passive : These contracts should be signed by the manager today. Các n i ñộ ng t ( ðộ ng t không yêu c u 1 tân ng nào) không ñượ c dùng b ñộ ng. My leg hurts . ðặ c bi t khi ch ng ch u trách nhi m chính c a hành ñộ ng c ũ ng không ñượ c chuy n thành câu b ñộ ng. The US takes charge : N ướ c M nh n lãnh trách nhi m N ế u là ng ườ i ho c v t tr c ti ế p gây ra hành ñộ ng thì dùng by nh ư ng n ế u là v t gián ti ế p gây ra hành ñộ ng thì dùng with . The bird was shot with the gun. The bird was shot by the hunter. Trong m t s tr ườ ng h p to be/to get + P2 hoàn toàn không mang ngh ĩ a b ñộ ng mà mang 2 ngh ĩ a: Ch tr ng thái, tình hu ng mà ch ng ñ ang g p ph i. Could you please check my mailbox while I am gone . He got lost in the maze of the town yesterday. Ch vi c ch ng t làm l y The little boy gets dressed very quickly. - Could I give you a hand with these tires. - No thanks, I will be done when I finish tightening these bolts. M i s bi ế n ñổ i v th i và th ñề u nh m vào ñộ ng t to be, còn phân t 2 gi nguyên. to be made of : ðượ c làm b ng ( ðề c p ñế n ch t li u làm nên v t) This table is made of wood to be made from : ðượ c làm ra t ( ñề c p ñế n vi c nguyên v t li u b bi ế n ñổ i kh i tr ng thái ban ñầ u ñể làm nên v t) Paper is made from wood to be made out of : ðượ c làm b ng ( ñề c p ñế n quá trình làm ra v t) This cake was made out of flour, butter, sugar, eggs and milk.
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