LIN200 Week 15 Day 2+ - final exam review

One with a larger number of categories in the us

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one with a larger number of categories) In the US, phonological features are more likely to stratify gradiently
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What are these kinds of sociolinguistic variables? Stereotypes Everyone knows about them and people comment on their use These show stylistic variation Markers People make social judgments based on these but aren’t consciously aware of them A lot of vowel variables are like this These show stylistic variation Indicators People don’t have any social evaluation of these even though they are socially stratified Very uncommon in American English
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Dialectology
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What is negative concord? Negative concord is sometimes called a “double negative.” Labov gives the following example: He don’t know nothing. Many people have claimed that this is illogical because it should mean “He does know something.” Labov points out that in AAVE (which he calls BEV) the way to say this would be to change the stress on the negative items in the sentence.
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What are monophthongs and diphthongs? A monophthong is one steady state vowel - Example: [ ɑ ] A diphthong moves from one position to another - Example: [ai] - the nucleus of the diphthong is its central part (the first part, here).
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What is an isogloss? Step 1: Interview a bunch of people about several linguistic features Step 2: Make a map for each linguistic feature Step 3: Draw an isogloss for each feature that demarcates the different usages Step 4: Find bundles of isoglosses that go together Step 5: Draw the boundaries of the dialect regions along the isogloss bundles
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Pin/pen merger isogloss
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Cot/caught merger
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Steel/still merger
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Full/fool merger
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Fell/fail merger
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Which/witch merger
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Is the Southern Vowel Shift a chain shift?
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What is vowel lowering? In many varieties of African-American English and Southern States English, the vowel /I/ is often realized as [E] or [ae] when followed by a velar nasal . Therefore, words like sing , thing , and drink are pronounced as sang, thang , and drank . This is also a feature of African American English.
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What is monophthongization? In a number of varieties of Southern States English and African-American English, the diphthong /aI/ becomes monophthongized. For example, words such as right , time , and like are pronounced with a low vowel monophthong, such as raht , tahm , and lahk . Note that the length of the diphthong is preserved as a long vowel in the SSE and AAE forms. In some instances, the diphthong is also monophthongized in certain varieties, particularly before liquids. For example, words like boil and toil are sometimes pronounced more like ball and tall .
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What is R-lessness?
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What is short-a raising? New Yorkers raise the ‘a’ in cab, pass, avenue This doesn’t happen in every word Words like pat , cap , and average are immune Sometimes even homophones can differ:
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What language varieties do they speak in the Midwest?
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