# Bias the systematic favoring of a particular outcome

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Bias – the systematic favoring of a particular outcome Simple Random Sample (SRS) – consists of n individuals from the population chosen in such a way that every set of n individuals has an equal chance to be the sample actually selected Random digits – A uniformly distributed random number set from 0 to 9 (from calculator or from Table B) Probability sample – a sample chosen by chance Stratum – a group of individuals, out of a population, that is similar in some way that is important to the response Strata – plural of stratum Stratified random sample – consists of one SRS for each stratum in the population Cluster – a group within a population Cluster sampling – a sampling method in which some clusters within a population are randomly selected, then all individuals within each chosen cluster are selected to be included in the sample Response bias – survey responders for a variety of reasons do not relate accurate information (they lie!) Undercoverage – occurs when some groups within the population are left out of the process of choosing the sample Nonresponse – occurs when an individual chosen for the sample cannot be contacted or does not cooperate Key Concepts: Sampling Methods: Simple random sampling (SRS) Everyone has an equal chance at selection Stratified sampling Some of all Cluster sampling All of some Systematic sampling Using an algorithm to determine who to sample Multi-stage sampling Dividing the sampling into stages Perhaps using different techniques at different stages

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Chapter 5: Producing Data Example 1: Describe how a university can conduct a survey regarding its campus safety. The registrar of the university has determined that the community of the university consists of 6,204 students in residence, 13,304 nonresident students, and 2,401 staff for a total of 21,909 individuals. The president has funds for only 1000 surveys to be given and then analyzed. How should she conduct the survey? Example 2: Sociologists want to gather data regarding the household income within Smyth County. They have come to the high schools for assistance. Describe a method which would disrupt the fewest classes and still gather the data needed. Example 3: The manager of Ingles wants to measure the satisfaction of the store’s customers. Design a sampling technique that can be used to obtain a sample of 40 customers. Example 4: The Independent Organization of Political Activity, IOPA, wants to conduct a survey focusing on the dissatisfaction with the current political parties. Several state-wide businesses have agreed to help. IOPA has come to you for advice. Describe a multi-stage survey strategy that will help them. Homework: Day 1: pg 333-4, 341-3 problems 5.1-5, 5.7, 5.8, 5.10, 5.13, 5.14
Chapter 5: Producing Data In the following problems, a) Determine is the survey design is flawed b) If flawed, is it due to the sampling method of the survey itself c) For flawed surveys, identify the cause of the error d) Suggest a remedy to the problem Example 1: MSHS wants to conduct a study regarding the achievement of its students. The principal selects the first 50

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