paratransit services, making key transit stations accessible, and making physical changes in services and facilities used by the public . One partial yet plausible set of estimates on ADA compliance was prepared by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), which estimated that the cost to the federal government in implementing the ADA would range from about S5 million in the first year to $31 million by 1995.7' But the real cost of compliance is with the content of the ADA — unlike other disability rights policies borne by state and local governments and private sector establishments, of course — will be substantially higher. With regard to the compliance costs to slate and local governments. CBO estimated that it would cost $20-30 million per year over several years to purchase additional lift-equipped buses. $15 million annually to provide maintenance to these buses, and several hundreds of millions of dollars over 30 years to make key rail and transit stations accessible . Still other dollars will be required to achieve compliance with other ADA mandates, including reasonable accommodation in employment and housing. Cost issues and the elevated opportunities
for people with disabilities has the potential to generate a backlash against the ADA and its strong regulatory mandates . While significant political revolts against the ADA have not yet materialized, complaints have arisen in some quarters about expansiveness of ADA mandates and the fiscal requirements needed to achieve compliance . Communities , large and small, have complained about compliance costs for such things as major building renovations and interpreter services . Complaints range in scope from mandated actions that represent little more than anger about the "nuisance" of compliance to accommodations that represent substantial fiscal outlays (e.g., provision of paratransit services). Academics have entered the fray, challenging whether disability policies which advance the opportunities of people with disabilities are fair and just or whether they can enable undeserving claims to "jump the queue" while other more deserving public needs are left unmet.71 And while these critiques from practitioners and academics remain, these seem unlikely to derail the ADA. One analyst warns state and local governments that: "Given the militancy of the disabled, the activism of the [US Justice Department and the sympathies of most of the judiciary, ignoring the 'little things' [adherence to ADA mandates] can turn out to be the riskiest strategy of all."71 Predictions fail and cause bad politics Sa, 04 – Deug Whan, Dong-U College, South Korea, (“CHAOS, UNCERTA I N T Y, AND POLICY CHOICE: UTILIZING THE ADAPTIVE MODEL,” International Review of Public Administration, vol. 8, no. 2, 2004, scholar) In many cases, a small choice might lead to overwhelming results that generate either a virtuous cycle or a vicious cycle. If future results can be clearly predicted by stability and linearity, this will eliminate difficulties in making choice.
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