The first is that even though long working hours does not increase the

The first is that even though long working hours does

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The first is that even though long working hours does not increase the promotion rate for men, it has a large impact on the promotion rate for women. This suggests that long working hours serve as the eligibility requirements of a managerial position only for women. The second discovery was that even though positive personnel evaluation leads to a greater promotion rate for men, the same is not true for women. This suggests the presence of “indirect discrimination” which places women in positions where there is a low rate of promotions regardless of the results of personnel evaluations. Roughly three quarters of female white collar regular workers are placed in clerical positions (while this is true for about a quarter of men), and unlike male clerical workers, female clerical workers characteristically perform little overtime working and have extremely low rates of promotion to managerial positions. In other words, the fact that long working hours is more of a requirement for managerial positions for women than it is for men is because the majority of those who do not work overtime are female clerical workers, that irrespective of their job performances these workers are excluded from candidacy for promotion to managerial positions, and that even if they potentially have a more diverse range of job capabilities, they are made to work in positions where they are unable to exhibit their capabilities other than those of a clerical nature. According to research conducted by the Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI) in 2009, 45% of Japanese companies with at least 100 employees did not have any female in the position of section chief or higher. Furthermore, in terms of the percentage of women in managerial positions, in Japan it was around 10% while the same was more than 40% in the United States. As there is not thought to be a difference in the potential managerial skills of Japanese and American women, this suggests a stark non-utilization of women in Japan. What are the Priority Points of Employment System Reform to Advance the Utilization of Women? In conclusion, to promote the advancement of women and ensure that employees can fulfill their potential regardless of gender, companies need to change their approach to the utilization of human resources from the traditional working styles that are highly restrictive in terms of time to flexible working styles that provide workers with autonomy in terms of time management. To achieve this, the following points are the keys. (1) The top management of companies should commit to rational promotion of the success of women and take the initiative in bringing about the necessary institutional reforms. (2) Systems that have the potential to be indirectly discriminatory against women need to be abolished.
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