Have been invented to prevent the destructive effects

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have been invented to prevent the destructive effects of PVC (Oecotextiles 2014 ). Regenerated cellulosic fi ber Regenerated cellulosic fi ber is made by the transformation of natural cellulose to a soluble cellulosic reconstruction in the forms of fi ber or a fi lm, thus requiring longer and more complicated manufacturing processes than natural fi bers (Alger 1996 ; Oecotextiles 2012a ). In the 1880s, the fi rst regenerated cellulosic fi ber rayon was invented as a substitute for silk in France. Rayon had the strong and soft, touchable qualities, similar to silk, while its chemical composition was close to cotton (Board of Intermediate Education Andhra Pradesh N.D.). A traditional viscose process, in which sodium hydroxide and carbon disul fi de are treated to transform natural cellulose to viscous liquid, is the most common chemical technique to manufacture rayon (Alger 1996 ). As the consequence of chemical usage, a traditional viscose rayon process creates negative impacts on the environment when the processed sodium hydroxide and carbon disul fi de are drained, untreated, into water sources or emitted into the air, where they are turned into greenhouse gases (Alger 1996 : Oecotextiles 2012a ). During the weaving process for converting the viscose fi bers into fabric, more destructive effects to the environment, as well as human health, will occur with the use of an excessive amounts of chemicals and water (Alger 1996 : Oecotextiles 2012a ). Natural fi ber Natural fi bers take up approximately half of the total global fabric consumption (Textile World 2015 ). The most common natural fi bers used in the textile industry include cotton, organic cotton, wool, linen, bamboo, and hemp. In today s textile market, cotton occupies the largest portion (80 %) of global natural fi ber usage and accounts for one-third of total global fi ber demands (MacDonald 2012 ). Cotton is a natural material, but still creates problems for the environment and human health. For instance, among entire agricultural crops, cotton is one of the most pesticide- and herbicide-intensive crops, accounting for 16 % of all insecticides and 6.8 % of all herbicides used globally (Greenchoices N.D.; Organiccotton N.D.a). These insecticide and herbicide applications will still remain on the end products after production (e.g., fabrics and garments) and throughout the lifetime of the material and pollute water sources and devastate natural ecosystems by reducing biodiver- sity in the elimination of the natural enemies of pests (Organiccotton N.D.a). Environmental Sustainability in the Textile Industry 27
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Compared to other vegetable fi ber crops, cotton requires a larger amount of natural resources (e.g., land, water, and electric energy); currently, cotton farms occupy 2.5 % of all global agricultural land. Cotton crops require large amounts of water for irrigation that will, as a result, degrade soil fertility due to salinization.
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