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Fibrinogen is an acute phase protein ceruloplasm is a

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-- Fibrinogen is an acute phase protein. --Ceruloplasm is a copper carrying protein, it inhibits bacterial growth. --Alpha 1 trypsin is found in alpha 1 on protein electrophoresis. --Compliment is an acute phase protein --C-reactive protein is an acute phase protein. It monitors medication for auto immune diseases. Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF)—triggers the maturation of cells ****Note**** T and B cells live for years Steroids inhibit T cells to fight inflammation. Too much steroid will lower the immune system
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7. *Phagocytosis* Phagocyte (macrophage, etc) comes in contact with foreign substance and it adheres to the surface -> the phagocyte begins to wrap around foreign substance trapping it and enclosing it into the membrane or phagosome -> lysozyme and other bactericidal enzymes kill and digest the organism inside the phagolysozyme -> parts of ingested organism that can’t be used are expelled from the phagocyte IMMUNOGLOBULINS (Antibodies) 1. Diagram the basic immunoglobulin structure and identify the following components: ***Notes**** --Different antibodies have different composition. The heavy chains are the same. The amino acid composition will be different per antibody. --Antibody will be in a T-shape when it is floating in blood.
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2. Define Heavy chain—one of the polypeptide units that makes up an immunoglobulin molecule. Each immunoglobulin monomer consists of 2 heavy chains paired with 2 light chains. Light chain—Small chain in an immunoglobulin molecule that is bound to the larger chain by disulfide bonds. The 2 types of light chains are called kappa and lambda. FC Portion (fragment)—fragment on an immunoglobulin molecule obtained by papain cleavage that consists of the carboxylterminal halves of 2 heavy chains. These two halves are held together by disulfide bonds. This fragment spontaneously crystalizes at 4’C. Fab Portion (fragment)-- fragment of an immunoglobulin molecule obtained by papain cleavage that consists of a light chain and one-half of a heavy chain held together by disulfide bonding. Papain cleavage site—papain is an enzyme used to cleave IgG into 3 pieces of about equal size. Papain will split the heavy chains Pepsin Cleavage site—this is where pepsin breaks down FC portion into very small fragments. Antigen Combining site-- site where antibody binds to epitope on antigen. Hinge region-- where antibody reacts and will be in a Y-shape. In hinge region there is compliment binding. Complement binding Site—binding site for complement located in the hinge region. J Piece—(joining J chain) a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 15,000 that serves to link immunoglobulin monomers together. These are found only on IgM and secretory IgA molecules.
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J Piece combining site—site at which immunoglobulin monomers link together.
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