They are optimized for doing intense addition and

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They are optimized for doing intense addition and multiplication operations.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 40 Based on Functionality -Network Processors . Used in routers. Multiple processors are pipelined to process the network packets in a optimal way. . Each processor processes multiple packets concurrently in multiple threads. . Eg : IXP1200 from Intel
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SUSHMA RAWAL 41 Various types of Memory DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory very dense (1 transistor per bit) and inexpensive requires refresh and often not the fastest access times often used for main memories SRAM: Static Random Access Memory fast and no refresh required not so dense and not so cheap often used for caches
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SUSHMA RAWAL 42 Various types of Memory ROM: Read - Only Memory often used for bootstrapping All ROM devices can retain data and programs forever, even during power failure. PROM: Programmable ROM - Once programmed, its contents cannot be changed. - One time programmable.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 43 Various types of Memory EPROM: Erasable-and-programmable ROM - EPROM can be erased and programmed repeatedly. - Essential part of software development and testing.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 44 Various types of Memory Hybrid Devices - hybrid memories can be written as desired, like RAM, but maintained their contents without electrical power, just like ROM - two of hybrid devices – EEPROM and Flash are ROM devices used to store code. - third hybrid device – NVRAM, is modified version of SRAM. EEPROMs are electrically erasable and programmable.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 45 Various types of Memory Flash memory - high density, low cost, nonvolatile, fast and electrically erasable. - Flash devices can be erased one sector at a time. - sector sizes range from 256 bytes to 16 KB NVRAM - usually SRAM with a battery backup - when power is turned on, operates just like SRAM - when power is turned off, NVRAM draws power from battery to retain its data
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SUSHMA RAWAL 46 The Embedded Software Development Process
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SUSHMA RAWAL 47 The Tools Compiler: Translates human readable code into assembly language or opcodes for a particular processor. Produces an object file. Assembler: Translates assembly language into opcodes. Also produces an object file. Linker: Organizes the object files, necessary libraries, and other data and produces a relocatable file.
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SUSHMA RAWAL 48 The Tools Relocatable file: an object file that holds code and data suitable for linking with other object files to create an executable or a shared object file. In other word, you can say that relocatable file is a foundation for creating executables and libraries. Locator: Takes the relocatable file and information about the memory of the system and produces an executable file. (By the way: gcc takes care of all of these functions at once)
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SUSHMA RAWAL 49 The Tools: Embedded System Specifics All of the tools run on the host computer, not the embedded computer.
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