Contains 3 subunits c1q c1r and c1s which are

Info icon This preview shows pages 14–16. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Contains 3 subunits: C1q, C1r, and C1s which are stabilized by calcium (these are inactive until activated and must serum instead of plasma because it has free calcium) C1q binds to the antibody molecules but C1r and C1s generate enzyme activity to start the cascade *Activation unit C1qrs splits [C4 C4a and C4b] and then splits [C2 C2a and C2b] o C4 is splits milliseconds before C2 o C2 is the exception as to what is found on the surface of the cell C4b attaches to the cell and then C2a attaches on top of C4b, they are held together by calcium C4b2a splits [C3 C3a and C3b] and C3b attaches to the surface of the cell Once C4b2a is attached to the cell you don’t need immunoglobulin molecule anymore C4b2a splits [C5 C5a and C5b] and C5b attaches to the surface of the cell **C3a, C4a, and C5a: have other functions – anaphylatoxins (will cause and anaphylactic-like reaction but no histamine is involved) **C3a and C5a (C5a more potent): chemotactic agent (an agent that calls phagocytic cells into an area **C2b: Kinin-like activities *Membrane Attack Complex C5b67 activates C8 If C8 attaches to the cell then the cell membrane will become leaky because there is a little bit of hemolysis C5b678 activates C9 and the cell will get little holes in it and then the cell will completely lyse The pathway doesn’t always go to completion ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY (doesn’t need immunoglobulin) Starts with C3 which hydrolyzes into C3b that combines with Factor B C3bB combines to the surface of the cell Factor B is split by Factor D plus Ba and Magnesium C3b and Factor B that’s been split all combine with properdin C5-C9 is the same as the classical pathway INHIBITORS C1INH: inhibits C1 and causes HANE (Hereditary Angio-Neurotic Edema) o HANE: more common in females and comes around the time of menstruation, causes swelling in the face and fingers because of fluid due to the anaphylatoxins Factor H: inhibits activity of C3 so you won’t get any lysis Factor I: inhibits activity of C3 so you won’t get any lysis **in diseases it’s not the antibody causing the problem it’s the complement **can lack any one of the complement factors including the inhibitors 3. List three other major functions of complement, besides cytolysis. Opsonization: facilitates phagocytosis Produces anaphylatoxins Chemotaxis 4. Besides complement, list and discuss 3 additional immune modulators.
Image of page 14

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
C-Reactive Protein: measure to see if there’s an immune response going on in the body, helps predict heart attacks Tumor Necrosis Factor: contains alpha and beta groups, lyses certain types of tumor cells, alpha is membrane bound or soluble form, allows good cells to get out, vasodilation allows for more fluid, heat, and redness a.
Image of page 15
Image of page 16
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern