Earliest specimen of Harappan script shows that the inscriptions were written generally from right to left on a wide range of objects. More than 2000 seals have been found in the Harappan settlements but although claims have been made to decipher the script, it is highly doubtful. HARAPPA SCRIPT
Food Habits: Knowledge of food habits and subsistence of Indus civilization is based on botanical and faunal studies, and images of plants and animals on painted pottery, figurines, and portrayals on seals. There was no uniform subsistence pattern in the Harappan civilization. Together with hunting, they practiced agriculture on a large scale. Peas, and two types of wheat and barley (discovered at the site of Banawali in Haryana). They produced sesame and mustard – used for oil. Evidence of rice cultivation on large scale is not available – Lothal exception. Fragments of cotton cloth found in Mohenjo Daro proves that Harappans grew cotton.
Irrigation : Harappan cultural zone fell in a comparatively low rainfall area. Irrigation was necessary for cultivation. Doubtful if they practiced canal irrigation. Most of the agricultural land in the alluvial plains were watered by floods. Evidences of massive tank in Lothal along with the dockyard, may have been a source for irrigation. Evidence suggests that Harappan were familiar with various methods of controlling water for irrigation.
LARGE WELL AT LOTHAL
Animal husbandry : Played an important role – people were familiar with a range of animals. Harappa terracotta represent cattle, sheep and goats, dogs, cats, humped bull, water buffalo, and elephants were domesticated. Donkeys and camels were used as carrier. Bones of various other animals from various settlements indicate they were familiar with deer, rhinoceros, tortoise. Horse and Cows were not found. This also explains the diversification of Harappan subsistence economy
METALS AND TOOLS : Harappans lived mostly in the Bronze Age. Manufactured Bronze by mixing tin and copper. Tin from Afghanistan or from Hazaribagh in Bihar; Copper from the mines in Rajasthan or from Baluchistan. Difficult to obtain and thus not prolific in and around Harappa. Tools comprised of flat axes, chisels, knives spearheads and arrowheads made of copper and bronze. Possessed the knowledge of gold - beads, pendants, armlets, brooches, needles and other ornaments made of gold and at times of silver.
METAL TOOLS HARAPPA
• Trade : Harappan trade links extended to the cities of Mesopotamia and central Asia where Harappan seals have been discovered. More than 30 of these seals have been unearthed in Mesopotamia, proving beyond a doubt that the Indus Valley directly or indirectly did trade with them. From the Indus region three cylinder seals and a few metal objects from Mesopotamia were found. Archaeological evidence with West Asia is not extensive. Absence of Mesopotamian trade items in Harappa is striking.
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- Fall '16
- Indus Valley Civilization, Harappa, Indus Valley, Mohenjo Daro