Prepares them for later life gender role development

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Prepares them for later life Gender role development Game: children’s activities are fluid and spontaneous Discovery of the “generalized other”
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In the play stage, children learn what is expected of them by significant others In this way children incorporate and understand the pressures of society - generalized other Albert Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory Human behavior is the result of the continuous interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences In this way, people both produce and are produced by their environment According to Bandura, children will use their cognitive skills to predict the outcomes of their behavior and thus exercise personal control over their thoughts and actions These ideas are the backbone of the advertising industry In terms of socialization, children then learn appropriate and inappropriate behavior by observing and modeling others in society Sigmund Freud: The Psychoanalytic View Freud emphasized the biological dimensions along with social factors in personality development For Freud, the infant’s first years are totally egocentric, with all energies directed toward pleasure This is an expression of a primitive biological force - the id that dominates the infant The ego is the rational part of the personality that controls the id’s basic urges, finding realistic ways of satisfying these biological cravings Superego - regulates both the id and the ego Freud saw the individual as being pulled away by two contradictory forces - the natural impulses of biology and the constraints of society - resulting in the imperfection and discontent of human beings Society’s Socialization Agents The Family: primary agent of socialization The family indoctrinates the child in the ways of society The parents equip the child with the information, etiquette, norms, and values necessary to be a functioning member of society In the mid-twentieth century the dominant view was that proper socialization was the teaching of good habits and desired behaviors At the same time, proper socialization was seen as the way to teach children to regulate their unpredictable impulses The key to the socialization process is the internalization of society’s values and norms, so that children will act according to parental expectations, even when no one is watching The Schools In contrast to families who may differ somewhat in their attitudes, interests, and emphases, schools provide a more uniform indoctrination of youth in culturally prescribed ways The formal curriculum provides children with the education needed to take on adult roles: reading, math, science, and so on In addition to the formal curriculum, young people are also exposed to the hidden curriculum - expectations about appropriate skills, character traits, and attitudes that pay off In school, the child learns how to function in the larger society by learning the formal prescriptions of society and by learning that to get along one must go along
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