Endosomes are capable of transporting this cell

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membranes. Endosomes are capable of transporting this cell material to the trans-golgi, cell membrane, or to the lysosomal pathway for degradation. - 6) Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): Is a series of interconnected membranes and is continuous with the nuclear membrane/envelope. The rough ER (RER) is studded with ribosomes and permits translation of proteins destined for secretion into its lumen. The smooth ER (SER) is used for lipid synthesis and detoxification. The SER also transports proteins from the RER to the Golgi apparatus. - 7) Golgi Apparatus : Consists of stacked membrane-bound sacs in which cellular products can be modified, packaged, and directed to specific cellular locations. Modification of cellular products includes the addition of groups (carbohydrates, phosphates, and sulfates) or the addition of signal sequences (direct the delivery of the product to the correct cellular location). After modification, if the product is destined for secretion, the secretory vesicle will merge with the cell membrane and its contents will be released via exocytosis. - 8) Peroxisomes : Contain hydrogen peroxide and can break down very long chain fatty acids via Beta-oxidation. They also participate in phospholipid synthesis and the pentaphosphate pathway. - Eukaryotic Cytoskeletons Function: - Cytoskeleton : Provides stability and rigidity (shape) to the overall structure of the cell, while also providing transport pathways for molecules within the cell. Overall there are three components of the cytoskeleton: - 1) Microfilaments: Are composed of actin. They provide structural protection for the cell and can cause muscle contractions through the interactions of myosin by using ATP. They also help form the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis in mitosis, which helps pinch off the connection between the two daughter cells. - 2) Microtubules: Are composed of tubulin. They create pathways for motor proteins like kinesin and dynein to carry vesicles. They also contribute to the structures of cilia (movement along surface of the cell) and flagella (movement of the cell itself), where they are
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organized into nine pairs of microtubules in a ring with two microtubules in the center (9+2 Structure). Centrioles are found in the region of the cell called the centrosome. They are structurally composed of nine triplets of microtubules with a hollow center. During mitosis the centrioles migrate to opposite poles of the dividing cell and organize the mitotic spindle. The microtubules extending from the centrioles attach to chromosomes via complexes called kinetochores and exert force on the sister chromatids, pulling them apart. - 3) Intermediate Filaments : Are involved in cell-cell adhesion and maintenance of the integrity of the cytoskeleton. They are able to withstand a tremendous amount of tension, thus increasing the structural rigidity of the cell. In addition they also help anchor organelles, such as the nucleus. Common examples of intermediate filaments include keratin, desmin, and lamins.
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  • Fall '15
  • Bacteria, Safranin, endosomes, Aerotolerant anaerobes, Epithelia, Lipopolysaccharides

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