decision The actual existence of a statute prior to such a determination of

Decision the actual existence of a statute prior to

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decision: “The actual existence of a statute, prior to such a determination [of unconstitutionality], is an operative fact and may have consequences which cannot justly be ignored. The past cannot always be erased by a new judicial declaration. The effect of the subsequent ruling as to invalidity may have to be considered in various aspects, with respect to particular relations, individual and corporate, and particular conduct, private and official.” 4 The now prevailing principle is that the existence of a statute or executive order prior to its being adjudged void is an operative fact to which legal consequences are attached. Precisely because of the judicial recognition that moratorium was a valid governmental response to the plight of the debtors who were war sufferers, this Court has made clear its view in a series of cases impressive in their number and unanimity that during the eight-year period that Executive Order No. 32 and Republic Act No. 342 were in force, prescription did not run. Belgica v. Ochoa, 710 SCRA 1 (2013) FACTS: The NBI Investigation was spawned by sworn affidavits of six (6) whistle-blowers who declared that JLN Corporation (Janet Lim Napoles) had swindled billions of pesos from the public coffers for "ghost projects" using dummy NGOs. Thus, Criminal complaints were filed before the Office of the Ombudsman, charging five (5) lawmakers for Plunder, and Constitutional Law 1 based on the syllabus of Atty. Remoroza 2018- 2019 47
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Merzy’s Notes Prelim Exam three (3) other lawmakers for Malversation, Direct Bribery, and Violation of the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act. Also recommended to be charged in the complaints are some of the lawmakers’ chiefs -of-staff or representatives, the heads and other officials of three (3) implementing agencies, and the several presidents of the NGOs set up by Napoles. Whistle-blowers alleged that" at least P900 Million from royalties in the operation of the Malampaya gas project off Palawan province intended for agrarian reform beneficiaries has gone into a dummy NGO. Several petitions were lodged before the Court similarly seeking that the "Pork Barrel System" be declared unconstitutional UDK-14951 – A Petition filed seeking that the PDAF be declared unconstitutional, and a cease and desist order be issued restraining President Benigno Simeon S. Aquino III (President Aquino) and Secretary Abad from releasing such funds to Members of Congress HELD: Yes, the PDAF article is unconstitutional. The post- enactment measures which govern the areas of project identification, fund release and fund realignment are not related to functions of congressional oversight and, hence, allow legislators to intervene and/or assume duties that properly belong to the sphere of budget execution. This violates the principle of separation of powers. Congress‘role must be confined to mere oversight that must be confined to: (1) scrutiny and (2) investigation and monitoring of the implementation of laws. Any action or step beyond that will undermine the separation of powers guaranteed by the constitution.
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