Medical confidentiality the need to pay special

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medical confidentiality), the need to pay special attention to specific difficult circumstances (admission, isolation, etc.) or to peculiar needs (drug addiction, infectious diseases, mental health, etc.). Indeed medical issues are one of the most relevant (and often problematic) matter during detention. They affect, directly or indirectly, many aspects of the daily-life in prison and they are closely related to human rights safeguard (Mann et al., 1994). Starting with admission, the European Prison Rules prescribe to record “any visible injuries and complaints about prior ill-treatment; and subject to the requirements of medical confidentiality, any information about the prisoner's health that is relevant to the physical and mental well-being of the prisoner or others” (15.1 e - f). Moreover, “as soon as possible after admission, information about the heal th of the prisoner on admission shall be supplemented by a medical examination” (16 a). In many cases, nevertheless, CTP reports relate that injuries observed upon arrival or sustained in prison are often not recorded at all or not correctly recorded. All national regulations order that each prisoner shall be visited within a few hours or days upon arrival. However, due to a lack of funding or unwillingness of professionals to work in prisons, physicians have in some cases reduced their presence in prison, so it happens that the first visit takes place several days after the admission or it consists merely of a few questions and does not include a comprehensive physical examination. As for allocation, the European Prison Rules prescribe: “The accommodation p rovided for prisoners, and in particular all sleeping accommodation, shall respect human dignity and, as far as possible, privacy, and meet the requirements of health and hygiene, due regard being paid to climatic conditions and especially to floor space, cubic content of air, lighting, heating and ventilation” (18.1). Almost everywhere cells and spaces for common activities do not meet hygiene and health requirements. Recently many countries have been condemned by the European Court of Human Rights for inhuman and degrading treatment because of the conditions of detention imposed on a prisoner in an overcrowded prison. The cleanliness of cells and sanitary facilities varies across different prisons but commonly many facilities violate the hygiene and health standards, especially the older ones. Frequently the actual access to shower is not guaranteed as the regulations order, and hot water is not always available. Sanitary facilities rarely allow some privacy. Prisoners seldom if ever receive what they need for hygiene purposes (for cleaning, including toiletries and general cleaning implements and materials), contrary to national regulations.
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