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Several other forms of unbalanced exchange exist

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-Several other forms of unbalanced exchange exist outside the market. In extremeinstances, no social relationship is involved; in others, sustained unequal relationshipsare maintained over time between people. These forms include taking something withno expectation of giving any return. They can occur in any mode of livelihood but aremost likely to be found in large-scale societies where more options (other than face-to-face) for balanced exchange exist.Gambling: The attempt to make a profit by playing a game of chance in which acertain item of value is staked in hopes of acquiring the much larger return thatone receives if one wins the game.Thef: Taking something with no expectation or thought of returning anything tothe original owner for it. It is the logical opposite of a pure gift. Anthropologistshave neglected the study of theft, no doubt a reasonable response because theftis an illegal activity that is difficult to study and might involve danger.Exploitation: Getting something of greater value for less in return, is a form ofextreme and persistent unbalanced exchange. Slavery is a form of exploitation inwhich people’s labor power is appropriated without their consent and with norecompense for its value.Globalization and Changing Economies: Sugar, Salt, and Steel Tools in the Amazon-Katherine Milton, a biological anthropologist, has studied the nutritional effects ofWestern contact on the consumption patterns and health of indigenous foragers in theBrazilian Amazon. She reports on the strong attraction of indigenous peoples to Westerngoods, starting in the early twentieth century, when the Brazilian government sought to“pacify” Amazonian groups by placing cooking pots, machetes, axes, and steel knivesalong trails.Global Demand for Phosphate Eats an Island:-Phosphate is found in rock deposits in several parts of the world. It is in high demand inagriculture, for fertilizer. Huge corporate businesses deal in phosphates, and theirinterest is in mining phosphate as cheaply as possible. In the Pacific region, an importantsource of phosphate is Banaba Island, or Ocean Island, which is part of the Republic ofKiribati (see Map 12.1, page 244). Ethnographic research documents the effects of theglobal demand for phosphate on Banaba (2015). Phosphate was discovered on BanabaIsland in 1900. From that time through 1979 when the phosphate mines were closed, aBritish company stripped 90 percent of the island’s sur-face. Most of the residents wereforcibly displaced, many to Fiji. Some have returned.-The Kiribati government would like to reopen the mines, but it is facing resistance fromBanaba Island residents as well as members of the Banaban diaspora.
Alternative Food Movements in Europe and North America:-Starting in Europe in the 1980s, several alternative food movements have grown inEurope and North America (Pratt 2007). Alternative food movements seek to reestablishdirect links between food producers, consumers, and marketers by promotingconsumption of locally grown food and food that is not mass produced. Suchmovements exist in direct opposition to the agro-industrial food system, which:Leads to economic ruin of small-scale producers who promote biodiversity.

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