75%(4)3 out of 4 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 43 - 46 out of 111 pages.
Lincoln's predecessor, President James Buchanan,had done nothing to convince Southerners to obey Federal authority, but Lincoln issued a stern warning: ifany more Federal property was taken, the military power of the national government would be used to crushthe rebellion. He appealed to the common heritage of all Americans, bound by the "mystic chords ofmemory," to avoid conflict, but his plea failed. Lincoln instead would have to develop a four-point programto use the superior resources of twenty-three northern states to win a civil war against eleven southern states. The completion of that program would preserve the Union and change our country forever, but it also leftmany questions unanswered.
United States HistoryJames BuchananJames Buchanan and the ConfederacyPresident Buchanan did little to stop the secession movement other than make himself available fornegotiations. Federal troops evacuated or surrendered national property to state forces, and Buchanan did notretaliate. Congress discussed the compromise plan of Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky, a formercolleague of the "Great Compromiser" of antebellum America, Henry Clay. Crittenden's proposal includedthe key elements of extending the Missouri Compromise line permanently to the Pacific coast, paying ownersfor runaway slaves, and banning the Federal government from interfering with slavery in states where italready existed. Because of Chief Justice Roger Taney's opinion in the case of Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857),these propositions took the form of Constitutional amendments, which required a two-thirds vote in bothhouses of Congress for approval. Republicans, led by president-elect Lincoln, could not support theproposal, nor could radical Southerners, and Crittenden's compromise proposal failed. A Peace Conference atWashington, DC, in February 1861 also adjourned without reaching a compromise that would avert a civilwar.
United States HistoryFort SumterFort Sumter before the attack. Harper’s Weekly, January 26, 1861The bombardment of Fort Sumter,engraved by George Edward Perine,1861When Lincoln warned the Confederacy not to take any more Federal property, there were only four forts stillcontrolled by the national government. Two of these were located in the Florida Keys, which lay far outsidethe main trade routes. Another, Fort Pickens at Pensacola, Florida, received Federal reinforcements andremained under national control. But Fort Sumter stood in Charleston harbor, an important port in SouthCarolina, which in 1833 had nullified the Force Bill and in 1860 had led the way in leaving the Union.Did you know...More than 4.800 shells hit Fort Sumter but only one man was killed. Private Daniel Hough died when a gunbeing loaded for the surrender ceremony fired prematurely.