Offenders effort to make reparation to the community served a symbolic function Day Reporting Centers A location that nonresidential clients report to on a daily basis for supervision and treatment Most centers incorporate multiple correctional methods Often used for probation failures Success rates vary for different kinds of clients
Intensive Supervision Probation (ISP) Way of dealing with offenders who need greater restrictions than offered by traditional community-based programs Rely on great degree of client contact by probation officer (smaller case load) Probation diversion vs. institutional diversion Has become popular because it presents a “tough” image of community supervision and addresses prison overcrowding Effectiveness varies Boot Camps Short-term institutional sentence, usually followed by probation, that puts the offender through a physical regimen designed to develop discipline and respect for authority Also referred to as shock incarceration Most camps include education, job training programs, and other rehabilitation services Evaluations showed a failure to reduce recidivism Boot camps have been phased out at the federal level Policy Issues Surrounding the Use of Intermediate Sanctions What agencies should implement the sanctions? Which offenders should be admitted to the programs? Will the “community corrections net” widen as a result of these policies so that more people will come under correctional supervision? Chapter 15: Incarceration and Prison Society Models of Incarceration Custodial model Reintegration model Rehabilitation model The Modern Prison Since the mid-1970s, the prison population has changed. More inmate are: African American and Hispanic From urban areas Convicted of drug-related and violent offenses The focus of corrections has shifted to crime control Educational and recreational amenities have been removed Models of Incarceration Three models of incarceration have predominated since the early 1940s Custodial Rehabilitation Reintegration
Custodial Model of Incarceration Assumes that prisoners have been incarcerated for the purpose of incapacitation, deterrence, or retribution Emphasizes security, discipline, and order; discipline is strict This model prevailed prior to WWII and dominates most maximum security prisons today Rehabilitation Model of Incarceration Emphasizes treatment programs designed to reform the offender Security and housekeeping are viewed primarily as preconditions for rehab Professional treatment specialists have a higher status than other employees Treatment programs still exist in most institutions, but few prisons conform to this model today Reintegration Model of Incarceration Linked to the structures and goals of community corrections Emphasized maintaining the offenders’ ties to family and community as a method of reform Prisons following this model gradually give inmates greater freedom Halfway houses and/or work release programs are used prior to giving inmates community supervision
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