New uses for steel the railroads with thousands of

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Chapter 1 / Exercise 1-21
Traffic and Highway Engineering, Enhanced Edition
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Interpret Maps1. Region Which state had the most steel-producing areas?2. Human-Environment Interaction What connection can you draw between natural resources (including water) and steel production in Pittsburgh?Natural Resources and the Birth of a Steel Town, 1886–1906Reading Check Summarize What natural resources were most important for industrialization?City LimitsCity LimitsOhioRiverMonongahelaR.AlleghenyRiverPittsburghSteel mills, 1886Steel mills, 1906Module 3156
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Chapter 1 / Exercise 1-21
Traffic and Highway Engineering, Enhanced Edition
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Vocabulary incandescentgiving off visible light as a result of being heatedInventions Promote ChangeBy capitalizing on natural resources, their own ingenuity, and government support for innovation in the form of patents, inventors changed more than the landscape. Their inventions affected the very way people lived and worked.THE POWER OF ELECTRICITY In 1876 Thomas Alva Edisonbecame a pioneer on the new industrial frontier when he established the world’s first research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. There Edison and his asso-ciates worked to perfect the incandescent light bulb, applying for a patent for his version of the bulb in 1880. Lewis H. Latimer,an African American inventor, played a key role in improving the light bulb when he invented a carbon filament in 1881. This filament lasted longer than filaments made from other materials that had been used in the past. Latimer later went to work for Edison’s company. Eventually, Edison and his team improved the light bulb even further by using tungsten filaments, which are still used today.Thomas Edison also invented an entire system for producing and dis-tributing electrical power. Another inventor, George Westinghouse, along with Edison, added innovations that made electricity safer and less expen-sive. The harnessing of electricity completely changed the nature of busi-ness in America. By 1890 electric power ran numerous machines, from fans to printing presses. This inexpensive, convenient source of energy soon became available in homes and spurred the invention of time-saving appliances. Electric streetcars made urban travel cheap and efficient and also promoted the outward spread of cities.More important, electricity allowed business owners greater freedom in deciding where to locate their plants. Many factories in the past, including textile mills, were pow-ered by water. That meant they had to be located near riv-ers or streams. The availability of electric power meant that

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