Negotiated with local leaders 7 years war eliminated

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Negotiated with local leaders 7 years war eliminated France from competing Company begins to take control, and takes over trade Created an army of Indian people to fight resisting rulers British policies imposed Growing poppy seed for the opium trade Gradual destruction of Indian economy 1700’s: Export of manufactured goods to England stops (England only wanted raw material so they could use them to produce manufactured goods and then sell them back to India) Indians could only buy British goods (mercantilism) Land was taken away from peasants and given to landlords to grow cash crops Transformed India from semi industrial to agricultural Sepoy Rebellion First violent response to imperialism Sepoys were Indian soldiers in the British East India company army Rumor spread that rifle grease was made of cow fat, and cows are sacred in Hinduism 1857: Sepoy mutiny Many angry groups in India (‘from peasants to princes’) No national unity in the movement The British army used Muslim and Sikh soldiers to fight the Sepoys British army enters India and takes control in 1857 European Imperialism in Africa Berlin Conference: European nations get together to divide up Africa and see who takes what Otto von Bismark (German Chancellor) leads the conference Suez canal (“now Africa is an island!”) Planned to be a French-Egyptian collaboration (1854-69) The canal would cut transportation between Europe and India in half by connecting the Mediterranean and Red seas The French wanted to control access to ‘the East’ Egypt borrowed money from the French banks to pay for the canal, so France essentially pays for the whole thing and more pressure is put on Egypt Egypt defaults and can’t pay France back, and France can’t afford to pay for the whole thing The British step (1881) British buy French debt Send troops to Egypt to provide ‘economic advice’ but they really just wanted to show their power over the Suez canal British “protectorate” formed because the British wanted to protect their investments Creation of a plantation cash crop of cotton Peasants driven off the land Britain could control Egypt with only 5,000 troops South Africa
Dutch 1852: Established Cape Colony Began as a base on route to Southeast Asia Descendants of Dutch settlers were called Boers British Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) wanted Britain to control Africa and wanted to take South Africa because diamonds were found there 1815: Take Cape Colony Great Trek (1836-1838): Boer migration north, because the British had abolished slavery and the Boers didn’t want to give up their slaves 1860’s: Diamonds discovered, and later, gold Impact of British rule British capital invested (to extract gold and diamonds) Unites South African colonies (‘Union of South Africa’) Huge need for African labor for mines Native Lands Act (1913): Restrict black ownership of land to 7% of all land Urban Areas Act (1923): Black people may not live in urban areas (they had to live in rural areas, where they could work in mines) Belgian Congo

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