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Fifth edition © oxford university press canada 2012

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Unformatted text preview: , Fifth Edition © Oxford University Press Canada, 2012 Passage 9 1. a) Conventional. A conventional definition is one where the meaning of the word or phrase is specified and deviates at least somewhat from its ordinary meaning. In this case, the definition seems to deviate from the usual meaning of the word “bladder.” See pp. 178–181. 2. a) Intensional. An intensional definition is one where the meaning of the word or phrase is specified by picking out features or properties. In this case, being an organ capable of causing pain is a property used to define “bladder.” See pp. 178–181. 3. b) No. The rule of equivalence applies to non-conventional definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must be equivalent to the standard or expected meaning. In this case, it doesn’t seem to be part of the usual meaning of “bladder” that it is an organ capable of causing pain. See pp. 184–185. 4. b) No. The rule of essential characteristics applies to intensional definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must pick out important or essential features, rather than insignificant or tangential ones. In this case, it does not seem to be essential to being a bladder that it is capable of causing pain. See p. 185. 5. a) Yes. The rule of clarity applies to all definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must help to clarify or explain its meaning. In this case, knowing that a bladder is an organ does somewhat explain its meaning. See pp. 185–186. 6. a) Yes. The rule of neutrality applies to all definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must avoid the use of emotional language or euphemisms. In this case, there is no emotional language or euphemisms. See p. 186. Passage 10 1. b) Non-conventional. A conventional definition is one where the meaning of the word or phrase is specified and deviates at least somewhat from its ordinary meaning. In this case, the intent seems to be to match the usual meaning. See pp. 178–181. 2. a) Intensional. An intensional definition is one where the meaning of the word or phrase is specified by picking out features or properties. In this case, the definition does not refer to objects, and does refer to properties. See pp. 178–181. 3. a) Yes. The rule of equivalence applies to non-conventional definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must be equivalent to the standard or expected meaning. In this case, that seems true, in that mathematics can reasonably be seen as the study of numbers, their properties, and the rules that govern them. See pp. 184–185. 4. a) Yes. The rule of essential characteristics applies to intensional definitions and states that the definition of the word or phrase must pick out important or essential features, rather than insignificant or tangential ones. In this case, that seems true, in that it seems important to mathematics that it is the study of numbers, their properties, and the rules that govern them. mathematics that it is the study of numbers, their properties, and the rules that govern them....
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