Humanistic psychology emphasizes the inner-self and the importance of subjective feelings • Cognitive psychology focuses on mental function and reasoning • Psychobiology views behavior as reflecting brain processes • Evolutionary psychology asserts that certain behavioral characteristics are subject to natural selection • Cultural psychology examines the influence of culture and ethnic practice on people’s behavior • ?( or a pointing finger) Activity to pause and reflect 1. How would we explain the addiction behaviour based on any three of the above views of psychology? 2. Identify any abnormal behaviour among humans in your community or other communities and explain how we can easily explain such behaviour using any of the above psychological views e. Main Areas of Psychology: • Clinical – psychotherapy, assessment, diagnosis • Developmental – how do we develop across life? • Social – how do people behave in groups? • Biopsychology – what is the brain basis of behaviour? • Cognitive – how do we think and perceive? • Personality – what basic traits make up a person’s personality?
HSMU 127 MANAGEMENT PSYCHOLOGY BY DR. NYAVANGA Page 5 f. Main Careers in Psychology: • Clinical work – e.g., psychotherapist*^ • Academic – e.g., professor/researcher* • Business – e.g., industrial psychologist*^ • Journalism – e.g., science writer* • Technology – e.g., software developer g. Is Psychology a science or common sense? Science Common Sense Objective data collection Subjective data collection Systematic observation Hit or miss observation Reliance on evidence Ignores counterevidence Science uses the following scientific methods thus:Systematic, Testable, Reliable, Unbiased, and is Self- Correcting. i. Scientific Terminology: • Hypothesis - a possible way things could be • Theory - an explanation for the way things are, usually supported by a lot of data. • Advantages of science : o Scientific methods are deductive o Science is more systematic , and less subject to human bias 2.0 Research in Psychology: • Two forms of psychological research: o Basic research seeks answers for the purpose of increasing knowledge. § e.g. What role do the frontal lobes play in memory? o Applied research seeks answers for specific problems.
HSMU 127 MANAGEMENT PSYCHOLOGY BY DR. NYAVANGA Page 6 § e.g. What types of memory strategies and rehabilitation strategies are most effective for people with frontal lobe injuries? a. Scientific Methods: b. The Experiment: • An experiment involves a set of controlled conditions that aim to confirm a hypothesis. • Hypothesis refers to a statement of cause and effect: o “Higher environmental temperatures lead to more aggression.” o “Exposure to marijuana increases appetite.” i. Experimental Variables: To test a hypothesis, an experimenter defines the variables of the hypothesis: • Cause: Independent variable (IV) – marijuana: plain cigarette versus cigarette containing 5 mg of THC (the active ingredient in marijuana ) • Effect: Dependent variable (DV)
HSMU 127 MANAGEMENT PSYCHOLOGY BY DR. NYAVANGA Page 7 – appetite:
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