Physical Science 8th grade (1).pdf

2 build the following molecules as you build your

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2. Build the following molecules. As you build your molecules, try to make sure each atom is as far from other atoms as possible. If a molecule has three hydrogen atoms on it, don’t put all three next to each other. Space them evenly around the central atom. 3. Build the following molecules. Applying your knowledge a. Once you’ve built your models, sketch them on paper. b. If a bond is a pair of electrons shared between two atoms, how many electrons are being shared in H 2 ? c. If a bond is a pair of electrons shared between two atoms, how many electrons are being shared in O 2 ? d. Electrons are negatively charged. Charges of the same kind repel. Bonds are shared pairs of electrons. How does this explain that atoms are evenly spaced around each other in molecules? e. There were two different ways (at least) to draw the molecule C 2 H 6 O . When the same formula can produce different molecules, those molecules are called isomers. Do you think the isomers of C 2 H 6 O have the same characteristics or different characteristics? Explain. f. Write the formula for the molecule in the diagram: How many toothpicks and gumdrops (and what color!) would you need to build this molecule? H 2 O 2 N 2 H 2 O CH 4 HCN CO 2 C 2 H 6 O (two different versions) Chapter 8 Activity
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C HAPTER 8 M OLECULES AND C OMPOUNDS 175 Chapter 8 Assessment Vocabulary Select the correct term to complete the sentences. Section 8.1 1. When two atoms share or trade electrons a(n) ____ is formed. 2. An atom that has acquired a positive or negative charge is called a(n) ____. 3. To represent the number and type of each element in a molecule, chemists write a ____. 4. A substance whose smallest particles include more than one element chemically bonded together is a ____. 5. The type of chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons is the ____ bond. 6. A substance made of two or more elements or compounds not chemically bonded to each other is a(n) ____. 7. A bond formed when an electron is transferred from one atom to another is a(n) ____. 8. A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds in a specific ratio form a(n) ____. Section 8.2 9. Electrons in the highest unfilled energy level of an atom, that may participate in chemical bonds are called ____. 10. The number which indicates the charge on an atom when an electron is lost, gained or, shared is called the ____. Concepts Section 8.1 1. What is the chemical formula for water? What atoms make up this compound? 2. What is the difference between a compound and a mixture? 3. List 3 examples of a mixture and 3 examples of a compound. 4. Why do atoms form compounds instead of existing as single atoms? 5. What type of bond holds a water molecule together? 6. What do we call the particle that is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds? 7. List 4 examples of a molecule. 8. What does the subscript “2” in H 2 0 mean?
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