The TRANSFORMATION of the PRIMITIVE OTHER Notes

Philosophy pragmatism william james 1842 1910 o

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Philosophy Pragmatism: William James (1842-1910) o Movement in US o Simply defining truth in terms of its practical consequences, its results, than in terms of its first principles (what it was first based on) o Dead set against atomism (little discrete packages of things) o Comes up with the idea of a stream of consciousness Phase that writers pick up on Wolfe picks up on this technique Vitalism: Henri Bergson (1859-1941) o French philosopher o Charismatic popular lectures o Creative Evolution, 1907 Elanviale Emphasis on action rather than thinking The politics of impatience : Georges Sorel Socialist Finds that its become much too rational Return to the anarchist ideas INTELLECTUALS and WW1 Introduction Different relationship between intellectuals and society Physical displacement Can’t afford the luxury of being detached from society Moving away from abstract systems and towards concrete ones Increase of distrust of rationality Increase emphasis on mythical thinking Trying to simplify all that is going on Appeal to the heart as well as the head Nietzsche becomes widely spread and discussed—people identify with him on both the right and the left o Inspiration to people fighting in WW1 August 1914 War declared Intellectuals’ reactions were no different from the masses Einstein was always against the war—no compromises in his feeling
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Many of the intellectuals have been international and kept up their contacts Struggle for survival set the tone Complexities of life could be reduced to simple ideas All Quiet on the Western Front, 1928 o Portrayed the gruesomeness of the war o Considered an ant-war book o Expressed the psychology of the trenches o Tendency to simplify thinking Splits in society start opening up again o Examples of workers going on strike o People calling for peace Disillusionment Don’t find a lot of it because the war was too traumatic to put into words War poetry o Mainly in England o England did not have a draft until fairly late in the war o People who tended to volunteer were the educated people; they knew how to express themselves o Wilfred Owen (1893-1918) Dulce et decorum est It is sweet and fitting to die for one’s country Dada: Marcel Duchamp o French name for hobbyhorse o Movement in Switzerland (neutral) o Repelled by the hypocrisy of the war o All these people were killing and dying for heroic ideas o Many were poets as well as painters o Jean Arc Frenchman Dada Manifesto o Read a poem and ring a bell at the same time to drown out the poem; someone would write on a blackboard and another would follow erasing it o Marcel Duchamp Frenchman who escaped France to move to NY Nude Descending a Staircase , 1912 Work before the war Questioning any kind of border between art and reality The Fountain , 1917 Urinal What is art and what is not?
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L.H.O.O.Q.
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