development scientists identified optimal enviro influences Critics may argue poor adults deserve fate bc lazy/irresponsible but not very convincing when applied to young children American Head Start program, adapted idea to focus on goals + cultures of Aboriginal Canadians. Foster edu along w +ve self identity + empowerment Collectivity interdependence of members of community much more important aspect of life for Aboriginal cultures than for mainstream Canadian culture AHS + AHSOR engage + involve indigenous cultures to promote +ve growth in children Massive intervention over many years expensive + econ consequences of poverty, unemployment + by products. Long term: programs more than pay for themselves in form of increased earning + tax revenues for participating children + lowered costs associated w criminal justice system AHS should help to break cycle of school failure + low edu achievement; show intelligence fostered by stimulating + responsive enviro Impact of Ethnicity + Socioeconomic status Ethnic groups differ in average scores in IQ tests not due to genes/familiarity w specific test items, but to children's familiarity + comfort w testing situation. IQ scores remained valid
predictors of school success because middle class experience is often prerequisite for school success. Researchers now argue concept of race redundant No evidence some ethnic groups have more 'smart genes' than others. Believe enviro largely responsible for diffs Critics contend diffs in test scores reflect bias in tests themselves. Test items reflect cultural heritage of test creators, most econ advanced European Canadians so tests biased against econ disadvantaged children from other groups Specific questions can influence scores on test Problem of bias led to development of culture-fair intelligence tests, include test items based on experiences common to many cultures Group diffs remained in performance on so called culture fair intelligence tests Combat effect of stereotype threat by giving people +ve exs Should interpret test scores w caution + remember many ways of conceptualizing intelligence + many influences at work in development Americans remember more from early years + detail than Asians bc elaboration less common Experiences can be stored in memory exactly (verbatim, kids)/basic meaning (gist, adult) ● Knowledge can also distort memory if experience differs from a script ○ According to the fuzzy trace theory , developed by Brainerd & Reyna (2004, 2005), most experiences can be stored in memory exactly (verbatim) or in terms of their basic meaning (gist) ■ False memories were less common in young children than in older children & adolescents
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- Fall '13
- Intelligence quotient, IQ scores, info processing, cog development