Chemistry_Grade_10-12 (1).pdf

4 standard electrode potentials 328 1741 the

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17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 17.4.1 The different reactivities of metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 17.4.3 Measuring electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.4 The standard hydrogen electrode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 17.4.5 Standard electrode potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 17.4.6 Combining half cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 17.4.7 Uses of standard electrode potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 17.5 Balancing redox reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 17.6 Applications of electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.1 Electroplating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 17.6.2 The production of chlorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 17.6.3 Extraction of aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 17.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 IV Chemical Systems 353 18 The Water Cycle - Grade 10 355 18.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18.2 The importance of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 18.3 The movement of water through the water cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 18.4 The microscopic structure of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 xi
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CONTENTS CONTENTS 18.4.1 The polar nature of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.4.2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 18.5 The unique properties of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 18.6 Water conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 18.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 19 Global Cycles: The Nitrogen Cycle - Grade 10 369 19.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19.2 Nitrogen fixation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 19.3 Nitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 19.4 Denitrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 19.5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 19.6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 19.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374 20 The Hydrosphere - Grade 10 377 20.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 20.2 Interactions of the hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 20.3 Exploring the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 20.4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20.5 Ions in aqueous solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 20.5.1 Dissociation in water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 20.5.2 Ions and water hardness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 20.5.3 The pH scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 20.5.4 Acid rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 20.6 Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20.6.1 Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 20.6.2 Non-electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20.6.3 Factors that affect the conductivity of water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 20.7 Precipitation reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 20.8 Testing for common anions in solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.1 Test for a chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.2 Test for a sulphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 20.8.3 Test for a carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20.8.4 Test for bromides and iodides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 20.9 Threats to the Hydrosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 20.10Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394 21 The Lithosphere - Grade 11 397 21.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 21.2 The chemistry of the earth’s crust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 21.3 A brief history of mineral use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 21.4 Energy resources and their uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 xii
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CONTENTS CONTENTS 21.5 Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.2 Mining the Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.3 Processing the gold ore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 21.5.4 Characteristics and uses of gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 21.5.5 Environmental impacts of gold mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404 21.6 Mining and mineral processing: Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 21.6.1 Iron mining and iron ore processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 21.6.2 Types of iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 21.6.3 Iron in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 21.7 Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.7.1 Mining phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.7.2 Uses of phosphates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 21.8 Energy resources and their uses: Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.1 The formation of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.2 How coal is removed from the ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 21.8.3 The uses of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 21.8.4 Coal and the South African economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 21.8.5 The environmental impacts of coal mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 21.9 Energy resources and their uses: Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.1 How oil is formed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.2 Extracting oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 21.9.3 Other oil products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.9.4 The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.10Alternative energy resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 21.11Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 22 The Atmosphere - Grade 11 421 22.1 The composition of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 22.2 The structure of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.1 The troposphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.2 The stratosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 22.2.3 The mesosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 22.2.4 The thermosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 22.3 Greenhouse gases and global warming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.1 The heating of the atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 22.3.2 The greenhouse gases and global warming
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