Bronchiolitis most common associated pathogen is RSV Risk factors Major reason

Bronchiolitis most common associated pathogen is rsv

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or people with chronic heart or lung disease. Bronchiolitis → most common associated pathogen is RSV Risk factors: Major reason for hospitalization of infants and young children Clinical manifestations: Rhinorrhea Tight cough Decreased appetite, lethargy, and fever Wheezing, tachypnea Complications: Blue lips or skin (cyanosis). Cyanosis is caused by lack of oxygen. Pauses in breathing (apnea). Apnea is most likely to occur in premature infants and in infants within the first two months of life. Dehydration. Low oxygen levels and respiratory failure.
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Cystic Fibrosis Defective epithelial chloride ion transport, the gene makes a defective protein that reduced NaCl and water movement-drying out mucus layer in all organs. Because usually NaCl moves with water from airway to keep epithelial cells to keep mucous layer moist. Has hyperplasia of goblet cells; meaning there is an increase in production of mucous and it also affects secretion of mucous producing glands creating a pancreatic enzyme deficiency causing malabsorption. Then chronic inflammation causing damage to lung structures and constant infections Manifestations: repeated respiratory infections, FTT, meconium ileus which blocks the intestine, chronic cough, purulent mucous, malabsorption (loose, oily stools), clubbing, cyanosis, RV failure Pulmonary Drugs -7 questions Antitussives/nasal decongestants Mechanism - How they work in the body o Vasoconstriction, leading to less congestion and promoted nasal drainage Indications - Why you use them o Allergic rhinitis, cough and cold Adverse reactions and side effects – what you monitor o Rebound congestion- once your body gets used to them when you stop them you have worse congestion o CNS stimulation o Systemic vasoconstriction- more with oral agents- less with topical i. Relief from acute attacks beta agonists Mechanism - How they work in the body o Relieve acute bronchospasms, works on Beta 2 receptors and bronchodilates, suppresses histamine in the lung and increases ciliary motility o Short acting: ALBUTEROL(proventil, Ventolin), Bitolterol (tornalate), levalbuterol (xopenex) Pirbuterol (maxair) o Long acting: FORMATEROL (foradil) and salmeterol (serevent) Indications - Why you use them o Drug of choice for acute exacerbations o Intermittent episodes of bronchospasm o Prophylaxis for exercise induced bronchospasm o With frequent attacks, may take short acting on fixed schedule for prevention o Long acting beta agonists for used on a schedule to maintain bronchodilation, not for acute attacks. Also used for maintenance therapy for COPD Adverse reactions and side effects – what you monitor o With increased done can activate beta 1 receptors, especially oral preparations o Angina, tachydysrhythmias, tremor (beta 2 activation of skeletal muscles) Interactions (think about what you may expect to interact or decrease the effectiveness of medications) o use of beta blockers decreases effect i i. Prophylaxis of acute attacks inhaled glucocorticoids
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Mechanism - How they work in the body o
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