released into the aquatic environment particularly if there are any abstraction

Released into the aquatic environment particularly if

This preview shows page 404 - 406 out of 594 pages.

released into the aquatic environment, particularly if there are any abstraction points for potable water supply systems in the vicinity. Neglect of this point could lead to legal repercussions. Flush treatments, e.g. with malachite green, also involve the addition of drugs, albeit at high concentrations, to the water in stock-holding areas. After addition, the drug is flushed through the system by normal water flow. Flushing inevitably results in only a brief exposure to the inhibitory compound; therefore, quick-acting agents are absolutely necessary. As before, the major problem is adequate disposal of the spent drug. Injection of drug solutions is feasible for valuable stock, such as brood fish and ornamental/pet fish. However, the technique is slow and will undoubtedly require prior anaesthesia of the animals. The topical application of antimicrobial compounds is worthy of consideration for valuable and/or pet fish. In the case of ulcers, we recommend that the animal should be gently removed from the water, and the antimicrobial compound (pre- ferably as a powder) appHed to the lesion, which is then sealed with a waterproof covering, e.g. with dental paste. The lesions tend to heal quickly, with only limited evidence of scarring. Whatever the chosen method of appHcation, drugs may be used for prevention, i.e. prophylaxis, or treatment, i.e. chemotherapy, of fish diseases. Certainly, it is comforting to note that there are treatments available for the majority of the bacterial fish pathogens. Providing that drugs are used prudently and correctly, they will continue to offer rehef from the rigours of disease for the foreseeable future. CHEMOTHERAPY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES: ANAEROBES Eubacteriaceae representative Eubacterium tarantellae Udey et al. (1977) reported that isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, erythro- mycin, novobiocin, penicillin and tetracycline when examined by in vitro methods. It is possible that one or more of these compounds may be useful for chemoprophylaxis, but the value of any of these antimicrobial agents for chemotherapy is dubious. However, it seems likely that, once the pathogen has entered brain tissue, anti- microbial compounds would probably not be able to reach the site of infection.
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386 Bacterial Fish Pathogens CHEMOTHERAPY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES: GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA Carnobacteriaceae representatives Carnobacterium piscicola (and the lactobacilli) In vitro methods have shown that isolates are sensitive to ampicilhn, cephaloridine, chloramphenicol, furazolidone and tetracycline, but not to erythromycin, novo- biocin, streptomycin, sulphamerazine or sulphamethoxazole (Michel et al, 1986b; B. Austin, unpublished data). Unfortunately, these antimicrobial compounds were not evaluated in experiments with fish.
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