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Social status maslows social external esteem g rowth

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social & status (Maslow’s social & external esteem) G rowth intrinsic desire for personal development (Maslow’s internal esteem need & self- actualization) Differences w/ Maslow’s: - more than 1 need may be working @ same time - if satisfaction of a higher-level need is blocked, desire to satisfy a lower-level need inc. McClelland’s Theory of Needs McCLELLAND Need for Achievement (nAch) to excel, achieve in relation to a set of standards, strive to succeed Need for Power (nPow) to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise Need for Affiliation (nAff) desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships - nAch-ers: dislike succeeding by chance, prefer challenge, accept personal responsibility for success/failure, prefer tasks of moderate difficulty - nPow-ers: have impact, be influential, control others, prefer to be placed into competitive, status-oriented situations, concerned w/ prestige
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P ART 2: S TRIVING FOR P ERFORMANCE - nAff-ers: strive for friendship, prefer cooperative (rather than competitive) situations, high degree of mutual understanding - diff. needs suitable for diff. jobs (e.g. nPow → managers) Relationship of Various Needs Theories MASLOW ALDERFER HERZBERG McCLELLAND Hierarchy of Needs ERG Theory Motivation-Hygiene Theory Theory of Needs Self- Actualization Growth Motivators Need for Achievement Esteem Social Relatedness Need for Power Safety Existence Hygiene Factors Physiological Need for Affiliation * needs → when satisfied → motivation Summarizing Various Needs Theories Theory Maslow Aldefer Herzberg McClelland Is there hierarchy of needs? lower-order needs must be satisfied before one progresses to higher- order needs - > 1 need can be important at the same time - if a higher-order need not met, desire to satisfy a lower-level need inc. Hygiene factors must be met if a person is not to be dissatisfied (but will NOT lead to satisfaction) Motivators lead to satisfaction - ppl vary in types of needs they have - motivation and how well they perform at work are related to whether they have nAch, nPow, or nAff Theory’s impact / contribution? wide recognition among practicing managers (most are familiar with it) - a more valid version of need hierarchy - tells us that achievers will be motivated by jobs that offer personal responsibility, feedback, moderate risks - shows > 1 need may operate at the same time - popularity of giving workers greater responsibility for planning and controlling their work – attributed to his findings tells us that high need achievers do not necessarily make good managers (b/c high achievers are more interested in how they do personally) What empirical support / criticisms? - generally not validated by research - little support for hierarchical nature of needs - criticized for how ignores situational variables - not really a theory of motivation - assumes link btwn satisfaction and productivity that was not measured / demonstrated - mixed empirical support, but theory consistent w/ our knowledge of individual diff’s among ppl - good empirical support exists on
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