health and well-being of Veterans and Service members with combat-related PTSD symptomatology. The findings could serve to inform future research aimed at developing interpersonal as well as organizational trust among combat Veterans and Service members, in addition to mitigating any adverse health effects resulting from having difficulty with general trust. Frontiers in Psychiatry | 2 September 2018 | Volume 9 | Article 408
Kopacz et al. Trust and PTSD METHODOLOGY Participants for this cross-sectional study were recruited from six different sites. This included a sample of n = 373 Veterans recruited from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center (MC) in Durham ( n = 72; North Carolina), VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System ( n = 99; California), Charlie Norwood VAMC ( n = 119; Augusta, Georgia), Michael E. DeBakey VAMC ( n = 48; Houston, Texas), Audie L. Murphy VAMC ( n = 35; San Antonio, Texas). A sample of n = 54 active duty Service members were recruited through Liberty University ( n = 54; Lynchburg, Virginia). Only Veteran or active duty Service members, with a self-reported history of deployment to a combat theater, and exhibiting PTSD symptoms were included in this study. The data analyzed here were drawn from a larger study examining the psychometric properties of a measure of moral injury. A detailed methodology of this larger study has been published elsewhere ( 35 ). In brief, after informed consent was obtained, paper questionnaires were completed in person at all sites except the Liberty University site where the questionnaire was completed online. Participants were compensated with a $25 gift card for their time. This study was approved by the institutional review boards (IRBs) and Research & Development (R&D) Committees at Duke University as well as at each data collection site. The demographic, military, social, religious, psychological, and physical health characteristics of the sample are presented in Table 1 . We applied several procedural remedies in an effort to mitigate any potential for common method bias ( 36 ). As part of the informed consent process, the sample was duly informed that responses would not be applied for diagnostic purposes nor would responses come to bear on the Veteran’s or the Service member’s provision of health care services or other benefits. Further, all responses were provided anonymously. The survey packet included a variety of questions and instruments with instructions designed to preclude any issues related to question order or “socially desirable responses.” Lastly, our measurements were in large part limited to high-quality empirically validated and published instruments which have already been extensively used in research. Measures DemographicCharacteristics Respondents were asked their age, gender, race, education, and marital status. Respondents were also asked their religious affiliation, with the following answer options: Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Muslim, Buddhist, other, no affiliation, and atheist/agnostic.
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