Energy transformation is heart of chemical evolution

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-energy transformation is heart of chemical evolution Spontaneous Reaction -proceed on its own without any continuous external influence -products have lower potential energy than reactants -product molecules less ordered than the reactants (amount of disorder=entropy) Gibbs Free Energy Change : ΔG = ΔH – TΔS -Spontaneous Reaction- ΔG is less than zero (exergonic) -Non-Spontaneous Reaction- ΔG is greater than zero (endergonic) Importance of Carbon -most versatile element on Earth -cause of four valence electrons can form four covalent bonds -provides structural framework for all important compounds associated with life Functional Groups 1) Amino and Carboxyl-attract/drop proton respectively -Amino groups=bases -Carboxyl groups=acids 2) Carbonyl Group- found on aldehyde and ketone molecules -are the site of reactions that link these molecules into larger more complex compounds 3) Hydroxyl Group- acts as a weak acid and are polar -molecules containing them will form hydrogen bonds and be highly soluble in water 4) Phosphate Group- carries two negative charges -change in charge dramatically affects the repellent molecule
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