Areas of cooperation include education, training, • civil emergency planning, science, terrorism. • Sweden & NATO: • 1949 Sweden chose not to join NATO, declared security policy aiming for non-alignment in peace/neutrality at war. • Sweden remains non-aligned.
8/6/2012 9 Collective Security – Collective Defense? Security or Defense? • Collective security missions increasingly prominent, but collective defense missions remain NATO’s “primary” responsibility. • Concern NATO expansion could spark new arms race between major powers. • NATO promotes regional cooperation, possible means to European Union integration.
8/6/2012 10 Warsaw Pact Warsaw Pact • Warsaw Pact - Warsaw Treaty Organization, alliance creating USSR- dominated military/ political alliance to counter NATO. • Reaction to admittance of West Germany to NATO. • Long term - Warsaw Pact designed to counter NATO, strengthen Russian control over satellite ‘Captive Nations” states, and boost Russian power in diplomacy. • Pact formalized and acted as one of two key power blocs in Cold War. • Warsaw Pact troops operated under Brezhnev Doctrine. • Compliance with USSR mandatory.
8/6/2012 11 Warsaw Pact Member Nations • Warsaw Pact, originally 20- year agreement, renewed 1985. • Officially dissolved July 1, 1991 at end of Cold War. • Member nations: Soviet Union, Albania (withdrew 1968), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany (withdrew 1990), Hungary, Poland, and Romania. NATO Expansion
8/6/2012 12 Membership Path Requirements for nations seeking NATO membership: • Functioning democratic political system based on market economy. • Fair treatment of minority populations. • Commitment to peaceful resolution of conflicts. • Ability and willingness to make military contribution to NATO operations. • Commitment to democratic civil- military relations and institutional structures. High North • United States and NATO lay claim to and extend military presence in High North: The Arctic Circle and waters connecting with it, Barents, Norwegian Seas, the Baltic. • U.S. issued National Security Presidential Directive 66, January 12, 2009. • "The United States has broad and fundamental national security interests in the Arctic region [which] include such matters as missile defense and early warning; deployment of sea and air systems for strategic sealift, strategic deterrence, maritime presence, and maritime security operations.“ • Coordinated initiative by the West to encroach on Arctic territory and confront Russia in High North. • NATO member states, individually and collectively, increase military presence and war fighting ability in High North accelerated dramatically.
8/6/2012 13 Sweden and NATO • Alarming and aggressive campaign in High North exemplified by 10-day Loyal Arrow 2009 NATO military exercises conducted in Sweden. • NATO rapid-reaction force in war games near contested Arctic territories.
- Spring '16