101 booth v indiana 237 us 391 1915 102 sturges burn

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101Booth v. Indiana, 237 U.S. 391 (1915).102Sturges & Burn v. Beauchamp, 231 U.S. 320 (1913).103Knoxville Iron Co. v. Harbison, 183 U.S. 13 (1901); Dayton Coal and Iron Co.v. Barton, 183 U.S. 23 (1901); Keokee Coke Co. v. Taylor, 234 U.S. 224 (1914).104Erie R.R. v. Williams, 233 U.S. 685 (1914).105St. Louis, I. Mt. & S.P. Ry. v. Paul, 173 U.S. 404 (1899).106Rail Coal Co. v. Ohio Industrial Comm’n, 236 U.S. 338 (1915). See alsoMcLean v. Arkansas, 211 U.S. 539 (1909).107West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, 300 U.S. 379 (1937) (overruling Adkins v.Children’s Hospital, 261 U.S. 525 (1923), a Fifth Amendment case); Morehead v.New York ex rel. Tipaldo, 298 U.S. 587 (1936).a protection against flood in case of abandonment,100and thatwashhouses be provided for employees.101Law Prohibiting Employment of Children in HazardousOccupations.—To make effective its prohibition against the em-ployment of persons under 16 years of age in dangerous occupa-tions, a State has been held to be competent to require employersat their peril to ascertain whether their employees are in factbelow that age.102Laws Regulating Payment of Wages.—No unconstitutionaldeprivation of liberty of contract was deemed to have been occa-sioned by a statute requiring redemption in cash of store orders orother evidences of indebtedness issued by employers in payment ofwages.103Nor was any constitutional defect discernible in laws re-quiring railroads to pay their employees semimonthly104and topay them on the day of discharge, without abatement or reduction,any funds due them.105Similarly, freedom of contract was held notto be infringed by an act requiring that miners, whose compensa-tion was fixed on the basis of weight, be paid according to coal inthe mine car rather than at a certain price per ton for coalscreened after it has been brought to the surface, and conditioningsuch payment on the presence of no greater percentage of dirt orimpurities than that ascertained as unavoidable by the State In-dustrial Commission.106Minimum Wage Laws.—The theory that a law prescribingminimum wages for women and children violates due process byimpairing freedom of contract was finally discarded in 1937.107Themodern theory of the Court, particularly when labor is the bene-ficiary of legislation, was stated by Justice Douglas for a majorityof the Court, in the following terms: ‘‘Our recent decisions makeplain that we do not sit as a superlegislature to weigh the wisdomof legislation nor to decide whether the policy which it expressesoffends the public welfare. The legislative power has limits. . . .But the state legislatures have constitutional authority to experi-ment with new techniques; they are entitled to their own standard
1588AMENDMENT 14—RIGHTS GUARANTEED108Day-Brite Lighting, Inc. v. Missouri, 342 U.S. 421, 423 (1952).109Id. at 424–25. See also Dean v. Gadsden Times Pub. Co., 412 U.S. 543 (1973)(sustaining statute providing that employee excused for jury duty should be entitledto full compensation from employer, less jury service fee).

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