In interwar years the colonial government proclaimed

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deeply affected by the exclusions of colonial rule. - In interwar years, the colonial government proclaimed that Christian Africans weren’t the “real” Africans. - Out of this milieu and the frustrations colonization imposed on these people, that early political associations like the NCBWA were built -organization insisted that such people—not just the most seemingly “African” of chiefs —should have a voice in articulating affairs. -Their political focus was not Nigeria, the Gold Coast, or Sierra Leone, but the cosmopolitan space that connected all of them. Blaise Diagne (1914) -a black African elected to represent four cities in Senegal -these four cities had been colonized at an earlier date, and inhabitants called originaires had most of the rights of French citizens -Diagne was elected to represent these cities in the legislature in Paris, breaking the political monopoly of mulatto and white citizens. -During WWII, Diagne realized how much France needed his help in recruiting soldiers, and he used this to entrench the citizenship rights of his constituents, to expand the voter rolls, and to build his own political machine. -Later, the French administration tried to contain these gains by emphasizing the “traditional” nature of society outside the communes and the authority of chiefs within them, but citizenship was proving to be too compelling an idea.
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