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The kidneys also produce hormones for instance renin, observes standardization of osmolarity, and regulate ions like K+, Na+, and Ca2+. 2. Calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride are controlled by the nephron. Describe this method of control.Answer: The method of controlling the substances mentioned earlier is known as tubular reabsorption. The process takes place in the nephron where the solutes and water move out of the filtrate, and they go back to the bloodstream. The method is called reabsorption since the substances were initially absorbed from the digestive tract after eating.3. Discuss the mechanism of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and how this system is affected in the event of trauma or surgery resulting in blood loss.Answer: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is abbreviated as RAAS. It has a vital role in affecting the functioning of heart output and arterial pressure through vascular resistance and blood volume regulation. The renin component in RAAS is chiefly produced by the kidneys, and it oversees the manufacturing of angiotensin in the tissues and blood.
Consequently, angiotensin affects the release of aldosterone in the adrenal cortex. Group Assignments1. Draw a diagram of the kidney and label each area.Answer:2. Design a ﬂowchart explaining the countercurrent mechanism in the loop of Henle and the effects of sodium and chloride on this mechanism.Answer:Clinical Assignments3.Select a patient in a clinical setting with congestive heart failure or hypotension. Describe how the renin angiotensin aldosterone system works to control fluid balance in this clinical situation.Answer:
The RAAS system acts to increase blood pressure through reabsorption of sodium in the distal nephron and by increasing vasoconstriction. The vasoconstriction process is controlled through; promotion of the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the sympathetic nerves and adrenal medulla respectively and working in the nervous system to raise thesympathetic outflow to blood vessels. 2. Visit a kidney dialysis center to observe dialysis and learn more about renal failure. interview a dialysis nurse and discuss die clinical manifestations that the nurse may find in patients with renal failure. What changes in the patient does thenurse expects to find at the conclusion of the dialysis session? Summarize the visit.Answer: Clinical manifestation: Angina, nausea, edema of ankles and feet, variation in urinary output,vomiting, weakness, SOB, reduced appetite, hypertension, loss of appetite, long lasting itching, reduced mental brightness, cramps and muscle twitch, and problems related to sleep. The nurse expects that after the dialysis; the patient would tolerate the dialysis well, but he/she should be ready for hypotension that is accompanied by vomiting, nausea, cramps in the abdomen, a feeling of lightheadedness, or SOB.