Qin Dynasty • Begin construction of the Great Wall of China • Also improved upon defensive city walls • Qin will formalize institutions in China • Weights and measures • Coinage • Written Chinese Language • Chinese culture was centralized • Subculture or “Non-Chinese” culture was seen as a sign of poverty
Qin Dynasty • Qin did not last after the death of Shi Huangdi • Built a tomb complex filled with Terra Cotta statues • His son took control, incompetent • Raised taxes to work on internal improvements • His advisors fought amongst themselves • Would not take criticism, executed those who disagreed with him • Chinese states broke apart and civil war began
Han Dynasty (201 B.C.E. – 220 C.E.) • Founded by Liu Bang after the collapse of the Qin dynasty • Considered the high point in Classical China’s history • “People of the Han” • Institutions in China became more formalized • Capital in Chang’an • Bureaucracy grew larger • Civil service exams began • Could raise the status of a poor family
Han Dynasty • Han encourages the Silk Road Trade • Trade route from China to Europe • Increase in Iron production for tools and weapons • Iron industry was taken over by the government in 117 B.C.E. • Later repealed by the Eastern Han • Made early Steel • Government also built irrigation and canals • Waterwheels to mill grain
Han Dynasty • Agriculture • Han used rotating field method of planting • Ox-drawn plows with a collar • Rice was main crop • Han created paper • Would come to Europe through trade, combined with Egyptian Papyrus • Han had advanced mathematics
Han Dynasty • Patriarchal Society • Women were not allowed to have high places in government or the economy • Child emperors were often assisted by their mothers who became Dowager Empresses • Social Structure • Emperor was at the top of society • Governmental elites • Peasants, Artisans, Unskilled Labor • Reflected Confucianism
Fall of the Han • Wang Mang (45 BC–23 AD) becomes regent of underage emperor • Does not give up control when emperor becomes an adult • Claims Mandate of Heaven, begins Xin Dynasty • Reforms: • Outlawing slavery • Nationalizing land and distributing it equally • Introducing new currencies
Fall of the Han • Xin Dynasty (9-23 C.E.) • Reforms unpopular • Rebellions begin • Unable to stop rebel groups • Red Eyebrows • Wang Mang is killed in 23 C.E. • Han Dynasty is reestablished • Known as the Eastern Han (capital in Luoyang)
Fall of the Han • The Han are unable to fully recover from Wang Mang rebellion • By 184 C.E., rebellion spreads through China • Outside invasions from other Asian nations (Korea, Vietnam) • Taxes were heavy on peasants who had little food due to poor harvest • Epidemic disease spread through China • Students began to revolt • Decline in Confucian ideals & general morality
Fall of the Han • Strong military encourages unrest •
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