20 centrlry elling thc rcicli tg 011 lic lnd the ex

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20"' Centrlry ,elling thc Rcicli-t:~g 011 li~c". ,lnd the ex-chief ol' Ihc (3estapo stated lllat Goering prepared a i~st ~ r t victims licl'orc thc I'irc was rtartcd. I)cspite all tllis, and the May seizures of parly ?uilclings, shutting don 11 OF ils papers, etc. thc SPD \loled in May 3 1 to support Hitler's foreign . . - policy. On 2 .\r~su\!1934 Hindellhurg ~ l ~ e d and Hitler nssulncd tlic ol'ficc of Prcsidc~lt. Hcnccforlh all ar~ncd Ii)r,.ix 1:crsonnc.l wcrc recluirctl to swear an oath to the Fuehrer and the Chancellor. I3ii:cr.s attitucle to the au~onornous ~raclicalism of the Storm Troopers iS;l). was another di~iionstratio~~ of his x ~ n : 01' I'using Pilrly and Slate. Once the Fuehrer, ai lie was known. ac:liic\,ed ;xlnolu(c powc~. ,E!l.lisl Rochm's warnings (I'rorn mid-1933) 01' u singnation in the ~c\,oluticw. his clf'orts to rnai11t:lin the tlo~ninancc of the 500,000-strong SA and the antipathy 10 it rllc conservative :[I-niy elite. sc~~lccl his fate. Rochm had proposzci that the aimed forces. tllc SA Kr SS cultl all veterans groups bc given equal status under n rle\\. rninisll-y 01' dcle~lcc, ~ h ~ c l i S I ~ O L I I C I intey;itc them all into 3 new I'eoj~lc's AI-nly. At the end of June 1934 Hitlcr :)rdcrccl the SS 10 pIi) sically clill~inale ~ h c SA leadcrsh~p. ;lrid pcrsonully supcr\/iscd ~ h c llrrcst 01' Koelin!. who w ~ s later sllot in his cell. 'The tlcslsi\,c cl~r.l)ln,n of' c!ynarnic tcnde~~cics bc~rlg unlcasliccl fro^^^ hclow". ~l~:rrhctl tlic ~rarlsli~r~natio~i ol rllc party Inlo a 111:1~1iinc for cngendel-ing total obcdicnc,c to 1l1c 5ilpl.ernc Ic:ltler 01' the statc. Thcrc ~ c r c othel- indications 01- this 11.ansl'ormalion. Wlicrcas 5. If./: ol' cn~ploycd workers and 3.8 Ljil 01' l'arlncrs \verc Nazi pi~rty rnelnbers in I935;'10% 01' all civil scr\ ;lnls and 30% of ;11l teachers were alrcatfy r1iembe1.s hy 1033-34. On I January I933 tlic 12;l\v I'or Ensuring the Unity ol Party and State \\:IS p;:ssctl. On 14 July 1934 the NSDAP was tlccl;u-crl ~ h c only polilical party in Cerm:uny, wit11 attcnipls at IOI-ming other parries punishable urldcr criminal lau8. During the ncxt I C I V years with its i;ltI~calclement fully sul>ju~uteil, the Hitlcr statc sccmctl to he iniluenccd by tlle traditional c.o:lccrvntivc notions of ortlcr at least as much as hy the dyna~nic force of the Nazi 27.7 STATE AND SOCIETY IN THE THIRD REICH In the l'irst eighteen months of Nazi rule a tcnse and unslahlc halancc exisred hetwcen three zcntrcs of power: the Party monopoly. cent~.aliscd governmental dictatorship ?nd pcrsorlnl absolutism. Radical forces in the partyiSA had hclpcd Hitlcr Overcome the 'c.ont;~inmcnl' policy of the conscrvativ~s. In hetwkcn hc switclictl sides ant! used the statc ro p~-cvclit Ihc radicals from cornplet~np the process of scizurc of' power. It was his ,~hsolulisrn that was strengtlic~~ed hy rhc conflicting processes of rc\lolution and counter-re\:olulion. But this very ahs~)lutism, far from r.esolving conllicls of interests within rhc state. tended lo create an internally r ~ \ c n and h~.irtlc structure Thus. the virtual separation and elelation of the Gestapo ([he (;c~lir.illrr .Ytrtnt.sl~oli:ei) 1'1-o~n
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