66 while negative emotions narrow and reduce the individuals response options

66 while negative emotions narrow and reduce the

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can call on later in life” (p. 66), while negative emotions narrow and reduce the individual’s response options to survival behaviors (Frederickson, 2001, 2003, 2004). Engagement (E in PERMA) involves flow (Csikszentmihalyi), which is based on intrinsic motivation. Meaning (M in PERMA) is found in being involved with something greater than oneself. Relationships (R in PERMA) can be very roughly tracked back to Seligman’s theory of authentic happiness in terms of the Meaningful Life, or the life of affiliation with something larger than oneself. It involves, at the very least, kindness toward others (Seligman, 2011, p. 21) and positive relationships (p. 20). Accomplishment (A in PERMA) is often pursued for its own sake, even when it brings no positive emotion, no meaning, and nothing in the way of positive relationships” (Seligman, 2011, p. 18). Seligman gives as an example the game of duplicate bridge, arguing that “winning for winning’s sake” does not involve positive emotion, meaning, or positive relationships. He also says that this is the “pure” state of accomplishment and that less “pure” forms involve positive emotion, meaning, and positive relationships. vii The list of 24 VIA Character Strengths on which Seligman bases his concept of signature strengths, uses somewhat different wording. The six virtues and their associated strengths are: (a) wisdom and knowledge – creativity, curiosity, judgment (critical thinking), love of learning, and perspective (wisdom); (b) courage – bravery (valor), perseverance, honesty (authenticity), and zest, all of which are much like many existentialists and Brown would advocate; (c) humanity – love, kindness, and social intelligence (emotional and interpersonal intelligence), much like Buber might advocate; (d) justice – teamwork, fairness, and leadership; (e) temperance – forgiveness, humility, prudence, and self-regulation; and (f) transcendence – appreciation of beauty and excellence (awe and wonder, much like feelings during Maslow’s peak experiences), gratitude, hope, humor, and spirituality. A slightly more scientific version of the same ideas in the manual: Peterson, C. & M.E.P. Seligman (2004). Character strengths and virtues. A handbook and classification. Oxford: University Press. From this pages 29-30 Classification of 24 character strengths under 6 virtues. And pages 16-28 Character strengths tested against 10 criteria. viii Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper and Row. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1998). Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement With Everyday Life. Basic Books. ix I thank my colleague Hein Zegers for his writing of this paragraph about Flow. x Snyder, C.R., S.J. Lopez & J.T. Pedrotti, (2011). Positive Psychology. The Scientific and Practical Explorations of Human Strengths. Second edition. Sage Publications .
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