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Active immunity resistance that develops due to

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Active immunity: resistance that develops due to activation of host’s own immune systemCan occur by artificial or natural meansPassive immunity: temporary protection from an infectious agent provided by an exogenoussourceInnate immunity: non-specific immune responseThe defense system we’re born withImmediate; responds very quickly1st line of defense: physical barriers and cell secretionsPhysical barriers: tightly packed epithelial cells of the skin and lining of GI, GU,and respiratory tractMechanical protection: coughing, sneezing, urinating, vomiting, defecationCell secretions: mucus, respiration, saliva, tears, earwax (some can havelysozyme or antimicrobial peptides)Normal flora/microbiome: don’t usually cause disease, inhibit colonization bypathogens2nd line of defense: inflammatory responseRapid and non-specific- to any cellular or tissue damage regardless of where ithappened or by what
Help trigger acquired (adaptive) immune system, by presenting a pathogen tothe cellsAcquired immunity: the immunity your body gains with exposureDelayed response w/ 1st exposure; faster response w/ subsequent exposuresProvides lifelong protection against certain pathogensHumoral immunity (B cell lineage):From the bone marrow, specific to making antibodies against microorganismsWhen B cells are activated (from interaction with APC, T-helper cells, andimmunocompetent B-cells) they differentiateCell mediated immunity (T cell lineage):Originate in bone marrow and differentiate in the thymus, T-cell lymphocytesUnderstand basic ABO and Rh factor typing:ABO:Type A:A antigen, has anti-B antibodies, can’t accept B or AB blood typesType B:B antigen, has anti-A antibodies, can’t accept A or AB blood typesType AB:Universal recipientA/B antigens, no antibodies, can accept any blood typeType O:Universal donorNo antigens, has anti-A/B antibodies, can’t accept A, B, or AB blood typesRh:Expressed on erythrocytes (RBC)Rh positive: express the D antigen on the RhD proteinRh negative: does not express the D antigenEx: A- blood can’t receive A+ bc doesn’t have the D antigen (they are Rh-)Differentiate H1 and H2 receptors and role (if any) in inflammation:H1 receptors:Present in bronchiCauses bronchial muscle contraction (bronchoconstriction) -> narrowing of the airwaysH2 receptors:Present in GI parietal cellsInduces gastric acid secretionPrinciple understanding of cytokines:Are signaling proteins that can have an effect on cellsInterferons, interleukins, and tumor necrosis factorInterferons:Protect against viral infectionInterleukins:Decrease production of cancer cells and protect against viral infections
Produced by macrophages and lymphocytes (WBC)Some are proinflammatory (IL-1 causes fever), some are anti-inflammatory (IL-10 suppresses activation/proliferation of lymphocytes)Tumor Necrosis Factor:Can induce chemotaxis (attract WBC to site), induce fever, increase synthesis of

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Term
Winter
Professor
Elizabeth Moxley
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