decision rule used influential decision making bodies including legislature and

Decision rule used influential decision making bodies

This preview shows page 5 - 7 out of 8 pages.

decision rule used influential decision-making bodies, including legislature and democratic nations 48. Marbury v. Madison: Facts: the suit was brought under Judiciary Act of 1789. Issues: whether an Act of Congress or the constitution was the supreme law of the land? Rationale: court also established its authority to strike down state laws found to be in violation of the constitution 49. median voter theorem:
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Both sides try to get as close to the median voter’s solution as possible for their votes - IMPORTANT: when the voter’s marginally preferred vote--they arrived at the median voter's ideal situation, there are no more solution, leaving no room to judge 50. Nash equilibrium: A stable state of a system involving the interaction of difference participants, in which no participant can gain by a unilateral change of strategy if the strategies of the other remain unchanged - No player can do better by unilaterally change his or her strategy 51. original jurisdiction: Lawful authority of court to hear case from the beginning and to pass judgement on the law and the facts (state courts) 52. outcome satisfaction 53. overcoming entrenched interests Entrenched interests: entities or groups with agenda that are actively fight to advance and or defend their agendas 54. overcoming federalism- eg. states often adopt policies that don’t agree with the federal ruling-- the legislative can use their rights(under the constitution guideline) -- this also apply to the federal when dealing with states to a certain policy 55. pairwise competition : comparison of result regarding the experiment A scientific study of preferences, attitude, voting system, social choice, public choice… - Process of comparing entities in pairs to judges which of each entity is preferred, or has greater amount of some quantitative property or weather or not the two entities are identical 56. Pareto efficiency : an absolute notion: It is rather impossible to make one party better off without making someone worse off. Eg. as economic situation when the circumstance of one individual cannot be made better without making situation worse off than in the allocation 57. performance approval: The systematic evaluation of the performances to understand the abilities and effect of organizational goal on performance ratings. - Some form of performance appraisal as means for improving employee - To study and investigate performance ratings on the effect of political influence 58. plurality rule: First past the post, Electoral system- which voter allowed to vote for only one candidate, to win, candidate must receive an absolute majority of votes, more votes than any other candidates combined - regardless of weather 50% threshold is passed. - It is the same as majority rule if there is only two alternatives. But when there is more than two, it is possible for plurality to choose an alternative that less than 50% of the votes cast in its favor 59. political construction of judicial review - under the constitution, the important of the traditional review -- 60. principal agent problem : known as agency dilemma or agency problem → b/w agent and principal
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