Based on a Mercator Projection where the equator runs north south Minimizes

Based on a mercator projection where the equator runs

This preview shows page 92 - 110 out of 231 pages.

Based on a Mercator Projection where the equator runs north-south Minimizes distortion in a narrow strip. Divides the earth into 60 North/South Zones Zones increase in number from west to east Zones are numbered starting 180 degrees west running east
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UTM zones in the lower 48
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UTM Each zone is 6 degrees in longitude wide Each zone has a north half and a south half Each half has an origin at the southwest corner of the zone Measurements are given in number of meters north (Northing) and number of meters east (Easting) of the origin in each half Does not go north of 84 degree north or south of 80 degree south
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Plane Coordinate Systems The Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS) Grid System Covers areas between the 80 degree parallels and the poles. Centered on the pole Is used for dividing the polar area into a series of 100,000-meter squares It is used as part of the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system to extend coverage to the poles.
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Military Grid Based on UTM Uses lettering system Zones are numbered from 1 to 60 west to east 8 degree strips of latitude are lettered from C to X Each 8 degree strip is divided into numbered quadrants
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Military Grid Coordinates
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State Plane Coordinate System SPCS uses feet a different map is used for each state elongated north/south states are based on a Lambert projection elongated east/west are based on a Mercator. A state is divided into zones (RI has one, Wisconsin has 3, can have up to 5)
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Zones are given names (example: central, east, west) a false southwest origin is given each zone Eastings and northings are measured from that origin
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GIS Capability A GIS package should be able to move between map projections, coordinate systems, datums, and ellipsoids.
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Geographic information Characteristics volume Dimensionality Levels of measurement continuity
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Building complex features Simple geographic features can be used to build more complex ones. Areas are made up of lines which are made up of points represented by their coordinates. Areas = {Lines} = {Points}
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Areas are lines are points are coordinates
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Dimensionality Discrete surface - Point features are spatial phenomena, each of which occurs at only one location in space Each feature is said to be discrete, in that it can occupy only a given point in space at any time Similarly lines and areas made of points can be discrete surfaces Vector data used
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Surfaces Continuous surface - values distributed without interruption continuously across the surface (e.g. terrain surface) Raster (grid-based) data used
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Measurement Levels Nominal-assign a name/label/class to a feature Ordinal-assign a rank to the object Interval-values measured on a relative scale Ratio-values measure on an absolute scale
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Properties of Features size distribution pattern contiguity neighborhood shape scale orientation.
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GIS Analysis
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  • Geography, Geographic information system

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